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Fathers of Confederation

 

Fathers of Confederation

A Canadian 3 cent stamp from 1917 based on Robert Harris's 1884 painting "Fathers of Confederation"

The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[1][2]

Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[3] The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation.[1] The provisional government established by Louis Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870.[4] The leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871.[5] The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, who was then referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation".[6]

Contents

  • Table of participation 1
  • Historic photographs 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Table of participation

Participant[2] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
George Brown
Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Alexander Campbell
Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Frederick Carter
Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
Sir George-Étienne Cartier
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir Edward Barron Chandler
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Jean-Charles Chapais
Quebec No Yes No
Sir James Cockburn
Ontario No Yes No
George Coles
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Robert B. Dickey
Nova Scotia Yes Yes No
Charles Fisher
New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir John Hamilton Gray
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John Hamilton Gray
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Thomas Heath Haviland
Prince Edward Island No Yes No
William Alexander Henry
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Sir William Pearce Howland
Ontario No No Yes
John Mercer Johnson
New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Andrew Archibald Macdonald
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John A. Macdonald
Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Jonathan McCully
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
William McDougall
Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
Quebec Yes Yes No
Peter Mitchell
New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Oliver Mowat
Ontario No Yes No
Edward Palmer
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
William Henry Pope
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
John William Ritchie
Nova Scotia No No Yes
Sir Ambrose Shea
Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
William H. Steeves
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
Quebec No Yes No
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Charles Tupper
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Edward Whelan
Prince Edward Island No Yes No
Robert Duncan Wilmot
New Brunswick No No Yes

Historic photographs

Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, gathering on the steps of Prince Edward Island's Government House for the Charlottetown Conference - Photo by George P. Roberts on September 11, 1864. 
Delegates of the Legislatures of Canada gathering at the Quebec Conference - Photo by Jules I. Livernois on October 27, 1864. 

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Fathers of Confederation". CandianHistory. 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  2. ^ a b Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  3. ^ Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627.  
  4. ^ The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007. 
  5. ^ Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44.  
  6. ^ Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer.  

Further reading

  • Coucill, Irma (2005). Canada's Prime Ministers, Governors General and Fathers of Confederation. Pembroke Publishers.  

External links

  • Fathers of Confederation - Library and Archives Canada
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