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Expedition of Qatan

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Expedition of Qatan

Raid on Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe
Date 625, 4 AH, Muharram
Location Nejd, Qatan, Saudi Arabia
Result Muhammad received intelligence that some members of the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe were planning to attack Medina:
  • Muhammad sends 150 men to raid the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe
  • Tribe members flee
  • Muslims bring back booty [1]
Belligerents
Muslims Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe
Commanders and leaders
Abu Salama 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Asad Unknown
Strength
150[1] Unknown
Casualties and losses
0 3 prisoners

The Expedition of Qatan, was the first Raid on the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe, which occurred directly after the Battle of Hamra al-Asad in the year 4 A.H[2] of the Islamic calendar. The expedition was ordered by Muhammad after he received intelligence that some members of the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah were planning to attack Medina.[1][2][3]

Background

Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah tribe (not to be confused with the Banu Asad tribe), were the residents of Qatan, in the vicinity of Fayd, was a powerful tribe connected with the Quraysh. They resided near the hill of Qatan in Nejd. Muhammad, purportedly, received intelligence reports that they were planning a raid on Medina. So he dispatched a force of 150 men under the leadership of Abu Salama `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Asad to make a sudden attack on this tribe. On the first day of Muharram.[1][4]

Raid

When the Muslims arrived at the site the tribe members fled and the Muslims found three herdsmen with a large herd of camels and goats. Then the booty, along with the three captives, was brought to Medina.

As per Islamic rule on plunder, all the movable booty must be taken out and removed from the site of plunder. It is unlawful, according to Islamic rule, not to take possession of infidel wealth after a successful plunder.

On the rule on Ghanimah, (plunder), the Dictionary of Islam writes, "If the Imam, or the leader of the Muslim army, conquers a country by force of arms, he is at liberty to leave the land in possession of the original proprietors, provided they pay tribute, or he may divide it amongst the Muslims; but with regard to movable property, it is unlawful for him to leave it in possession of the infidels, but he must bring it away with the army and divide it amongst the soldiers".[5] For this reason, the goats were taken back to Medina (as they are movable objects).

Abu Salamah had an inflammation from a previous wound, and he died.[1]

The 2nd raid of the Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah tribe took place almost 3 years later.[2][6]

Islamic sources

Biographical literature

This event is mentioned in Ibn Sa’d's biography of Muhammad.[4] The Muslim jurist Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya also mentions the event in his biography of Muhammad, Zad al-Ma'ad.[7] Modern secondary sources which mention this, include the award winning book,[8] Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar) [1]

Hadith literature

Sahih Muslim, 19:4330, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:627, Sahih Muslim, 19:4331 and Sahih Muslim, 19:4332 all mention that Muhammad sent some Muslims on a Military expedition to Nejd. This is where the raid took place.[1]

Sahih Muslim, 19:4332 states:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 349.
  2. ^ a b c Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust.  Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  3. ^ Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, Muhammad, seal of the prophets, p. 153, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980, ISBN 071000610
  4. ^ a b Ibn Sa’d, vol.ii, p. 150
  5. ^ Hughes, dictionary of Islam, p. 459
  6. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 383.
  7. ^ Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, Za'd al Ma'd, p. 2/108.
  8. ^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum - The Sealed Nectar. Dar-us-Salam Publications

Notes

  • Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications,  
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