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Election silence

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Election silence

Election silence,[1] pre-election silence, electoral silence, or campaign silence[2] is a ban on political campaigning prior to a presidential or general election. Some jurisdictions have declared that, legally, election silence is in violation of law regarding freedom of speech. It is however used in some of the world's democracies "in order to balance out the campaigning and maintain a free voting environment".[2]

Description

An election silence operates in some countries to allow a period for voters to reflect on events before casting their votes.[2] During this period no active campaigning by the candidates is allowed. Often polling is also banned. The silence is generally legally enforced, though in some countries it is just a "gentlemen's agreement" between leading parties.[2]

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Burson v. Freeman (1992) that campaigning can only be limited on election day in a small area around the polling station. Any broader ban on speech would be unconstitutional.[3] In Bulgaria, the constitutional court ruled in 2009 that both electoral silence and ban on opinion polls before the election day represented a violation of freedom of speech. The Constitutional Court of Hungary ruled in 2007 that ban on opinion polls was unconstitutional, but upheld electoral silence.[4] The Constitutional Court of Slovenia ruled in 2011 that a ban on opinion polls was unconstitutional.[5]

The most common phrase used in English is "blackout period".

Distribution

Election silences are observed in the following countries, amongst others. Their duration, prior to the election, is given in brackets:

  • Armenia (24 hours)[6]
  • Australia (from midnight on the Wednesday before polling day to the close of polls on polling day—always a Saturday)[7]
  • Azerbaijan (24 hours before voting)
  • Barbados (polling day and previous)[8]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (24 hours)
  • Bulgaria (24 hours in advance of polling day and on polling day)[9]
  • Canada (No campaigning on election day)[10] See Federal Elections Blackout
  • Croatia (from 00:00 on the preceding day)[11]
  • Egypt (48 hours)
  • France (on the Saturday before the Sunday election; polling silence included)
  • Hungary (from 00:00 on the preceding day)[12]
  • India (48 to 24 hrs. in advance of polling day and on polling day)
  • Italy (from 00:00 on the preceding day), polling banned from 15 days before elections, it is prohibited to say the names of candidates on television in the month before elections (except for TV news programs and regulated electoral advertising)
  • Republic of Macedonia (from 00:00 on the preceding day)
  • Malta (from 00:00 on the preceding day until the polls close on election day; since elections always fall on a Saturday, this means that the silence period starts on Friday at midnight)
  • Montenegro (48 hours)[13]
  • Mozambique (48 hours for campaigning; polling during the entire campaign period)[14]
  • New Zealand (between 00:00 and 19:00 on election day).[15]
  • Philippines (from 00:00 on the preceding day)
  • Poland (from 00:00 on the preceding day)[16]
  • Russia (24 hours)[17]
  • Singapore (24 hours) called "cooling-off day" first implemented on 2011[18]
  • Serbia(from 00:00 on the preceding day) [19]
  • Slovenia (from 00:00 on the preceding day)
  • Spain (from 00:00 on the preceding day) called "reflection day"[20]
  • Ukraine (from 00:00 on the preceding day)[21]
  • United Kingdom (voluntary restriction on election day)
  • Uruguay (from 00:00 two days before election day)
  • Venezuela (election day)[22]

The ACE Electoral Knowledge Network shows a map of blackout periods around the world.

References

  1. ^ French election: Sarkozy and Hollande keep silence, BBC News Europe, 5 May 2012
  2. ^ a b c d Aceproject.org
  3. ^ Burson v. Freeman, 504 U.S. 191 (1992)
  4. ^ Decision 6/2007 (II. 27.) AB on 26. February 2007
  5. ^ Decision U-I-67/09 on 24 March 2011
  6. ^ Electoral Code of the Republic of Armenia
  7. ^ Regulation of Political Advertising in Australia
  8. ^ Barbados Law on Election Broadcasting
  9. ^ Bulgaria Election Code
  10. ^ Elections Canada
  11. ^ Zakon o izboru zastupnika u Hrvatski sabor
  12. ^ Magyar Közlöny
  13. ^ B92 - Election silence begins in Montenegro
  14. ^ Mozambique Electoral Law: Electoral Law 7/2007, articles 18, 24, 34
  15. ^ http://www.elections.org.nz/rules/parties/party-secretary-handbook-2011/part-4-election-campaigning.html
  16. ^ Kodeks Wyborczy (internetowy system aktów prawnych) [1]
  17. ^ Russia Today
  18. ^ http://www.straitstimes.com/GeneralElection/News/Story/STIStory_664764.html
  19. ^ [2]
  20. ^ LEY ORGÁNICA 5/1985, DE 19 DE JUNIO, DEL RÉGIMEN ELECTORAL GENERAL
  21. ^ Electoral Silence in Ukraine
  22. ^ "Day of Silence" in Venezuela
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