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ESDP missions

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ESDP missions

Since 2002 the European Union has become increasingly active abroad under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). As of June 2012, it has engaged in 25 operations, using civilian and military instruments in several countries in three continents (Europe, Africa and Asia). Fifteen of these operations are currently ongoing, ten are completed, one is proposed and one is starting during the summer 2012.[1]

Ongoing operations

Europe
  • European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR Althea), 2 December 2004–: This is an EU military operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a transition from the NATO-led SFOR. Transfer of authority from SFOR to EUFOR happened on 2 December 2004.
  • European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM), 1 December 2005–: A border assistance mission to prevent smuggling, trafficking, and customs fraud on the Transnistria-section of the border.
  • European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX Kosovo), 9 December 2008–: Police and civilian mission to Kosovo following 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence.
  • European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM Georgia), 1 October 2008–: Ceasefire monitoring mission after 2008 South Ossetia war.
Africa
  • European Union Security Sector Reform Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (EUSEC RD Congo), 8 June 2005–: The European Union mission is to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[2] Among EUSEC DR Congo's projects was the 'Modernisation de l’Administration des Forces Armées de la RDC' (Modernisation of the Administration of the FARDC) underway in December 2008, under which, amongst other projects, information technology training was being delivered.[3] It appears that in December 2009, Secretary-General/High Representative Javier Solana issued a formal invitation for the United States government to offer a contribution to EUSEC RD Congo.[4] EUSEC DR Congo was initially planned in 2005-06 to include eight EU advisors assigned to posts in the DRC's integrated military structure (Structure Militaire d'Integration (?)), the army general staff, the National Committee for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (CONADER?), the Joint Operational Committee, and the Ministry of Defence.[5] From 2007 to 2011 EUSEC personnel grew from 8 to 46, with about 30 locally employed staff. 34 locally employed staff were listed in 2011. In 2008 with 46 staff 26 were in Kinshasa and 20 in the eastern DRC. Two personnel have died due to illness.[6]
  • EUPOL RD Congo, 1 July 2007–: Established as a successor to EUPOL Kinshasa with an initial mandate until 30 June 2008.
  • European Union Naval Force Somalia EU Naval Operation Atalanta, in international waters[7] 5 November 2008–: To combat piracy in Somalia, initial mandate of twelve months.
  • European Union Somalia Training Mission EUTM Somalia, in Uganda, May 2010-: To strengthen the Somalia security forces and to contribute to the stabilisation of Somalia.[8]
  • European Union Regional Maritime Capacity Building for the Horn of Africa and the Western Indian Ocean EUCAP NESTOR, Launched on 16 July 2012-: EUCAP NESTOR is a regional training mission under preparation, which will aim at strengthening the maritime capacities of eight countries in the Horn of Africa and the Western Indian Ocean.[9][10]
  • European Union Capacity Building EUCAP Sahel Niger in Niger, July 2012–:
  • EUTM Mali from January 2013
  • European Union Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan (EUAVSEC SOUTH SUDAN), February 2013–:
Asia
  • European Union Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq (EUJUST LEX), 1 July 2005–: The objective of this judicial mission to Iraq is to train some 770 judges, investigating magistrates, and senior police and penitentiary officers.
  • European Union Border Assistance Mission for the Rafah Crossing Point (EUBAM Rafah), 25 November 2005–: A border monitoring mission at the Rafah border-crossing between the Gaza and Egypt.
  • European Union Coordinating Office for Palestinian Police Support (EUPOL COPPS), 1 January 2006–: EU support to the Palestinian civil police, security sector reform and criminal justice.
  • European Union Police Mission to Afghanistan (EUPOL Afghanistan), 15 June 2007–: A police mission to Afghanistan, launched on 15 June 2007 and to last at least three years.[11]

Completed operations

Europe
  • European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM), 1 January 2003–30 June 2012: Police mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • European Union Military Operation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (EUFOR Concordia), 31 March 2003–15 December 2003: Launched in Macedonia following the request of President Boris Trajkovski. This operation made use of NATO assets and capabilities. This was the first mission (as per the December 1999 declaration of intent by EU members). During the operation, European Union troops watched over growing civil unrest in Macedonia due to ethnic tensions between the Macedon majority and Albanian minority in the east of the country. These tensions have abated since the approval by the Macedonian Parliament of a set of legislative measures recognising the rights of the Albanian minority. In a sense the stirrings of nationalism in the Albanian community was a direct result of the 1999 Kosovo War and the subsequent quasi-independence enjoyed by Kosovar Albanians. The force was acknowledged to have completed its mission successfully and a smaller follow-up mission which comprises assisting and training Macedonian police has recently begun.
  • European Union Police Mission in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (EUPOL Proxima), 15 December 2003–14 December 2005: This operation was launched on 15 December 2003 and covered an initial period of one year.
  • European Union Rule of Law Mission in Georgia (EUJUST Themis), 16 July 2004–14 July 2005: his mission was launched on 16 July 2004 for a duration of 12 months, and was designed to support the Georgian authorities in challenges to the criminal justice system and reform process.
  • European Union Police Advisory Team in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (EUPAT), 15 December 2005–14 June 2006: Launched on 15 December 2005 as a follow-on mission to EUPOL Proxima. The EU monitors and mentors the country's police on priority issues in the field of border police, public peace and order and accountability, the fight against corruption and organised crime. It finished its mandate in May 2006.[12]
Africa
  • European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Operation Artemis), 12 June 2003–1 September 2003: A military operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, conducted in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1484 of 30 May 2003, and adopted by the EU on 5 June 2003. The mission ended on 1 September 2003. This was the first time the EU conducted a military operation without NATO assistance. France was the "framework nation" and main contributor of forces.
  • European Union Police Mission in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (EUPOL Kinshasa), 12 April 2005–30 June 2007: In October 2003, the Democratic Republic of Congo requested the EU for assistance in setting up an Integrated Police Unit. EUPOL Kinshasa monitored, mentored and advised the IPU once trained and operational under a Congolese chain of command, until the national elections in DRC held in 2005. The mission finished on 30 June 2007.[12]
  • AMIS EU Supporting Action, 18 July 2005–31 December 2007: European Union support for AMIS, the mission of the African Union in Darfur. It ended with the handover to UNAMID on 31 December 2007.
  • EUFOR RD Congo, 12 June 2006–30 November 2006: An EU military operation in support of the United Nations Organisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) during the election process in DR Congo.
  • European Union Military Bridging Operation in Chad and the Central African Republic (EUFOR Tchad/RCA), 17 March 2008–15 March 2009: Deployment of 3000 troops as part of the joint EU-UN force MINURCAT in Chad and the Central African Republic to protect refugee camps; replaced by UN force.[13]
  • European Union Mission in Support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau (EU SSR Guinea-Bissau), 12 February 2008–30 September 2010: A mission for security sector reform in Guinea-Bissau with an initial mandate until 31 May 2009. Ended due to concerns over cooperation by Guinea-Bissau.[14]
Asia
  • European Union Monitoring Mission in Aceh (Indonesia) (Aceh Monitoring Mission, AMM), 15 September 2005–15 December 2006: The European Union, together with contributing countries from ASEAN, as well as with Norway and Switzerland, has deployed in September 2005 a monitoring mission in Aceh (Indonesia), monitoring the implementation of the peace agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). The mission was finished in December 2006.

Proposed operations

Africa
  • European Union Military Operation in Libya (EUFOR Libya), 2011: Approved by the European Council but never activated, would have seen EU ground forces deployed to complement the international aerial bombing campaign in the Libyan civil war.[15]

References

External links

  • List of CSDP missions
  • PhD Thesis on Civilian CSDP - EU Civilian crisis management (University of Geneva, 2008, 441 p. in French)
  • European Union Institute for Security Studies

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