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Crime in Venezuela

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Title: Crime in Venezuela  
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Subject: Education in Venezuela, Crime in Paraguay, International rankings of Venezuela, Environmental issues in Venezuela, Venezuelan literature
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Crime in Venezuela

Crime is a pervasive issue across Venezuela. Venezuela was ranked the most insecure nation in the world by Gallup in 2013 with the United Nations stating that such crime is due to the poor political and economic environment in the country.[1][2] The country's murder rate is also one of the highest in the world.[3][4][5] In 2008, polls indicated that crime was the number one concern of voters.[6] 2014 Gallup polls showed that only 19% of Venezuelans felt safe to walk alone at night with nearly one quarter of respondents stating that they or a household member had money stolen in the past year.[1] The U.S. State Department calls Venezuela "a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor".[7] Crime rates are higher in 'barrios' or 'ranchos' (slum areas) after dark. Petty crime such as pick-pocketing is prevalent, particularly on public transport in Caracas. As a result of the high levels of crime, Venezuelans were forced to change their ways of life due to the large insecurities they continuously experienced.[8]

In 2009 the Venezuelan government created a security force called the Bolivarian National Police and a new Experimental Security University. Human rights groups suggest that the government's policing efforts are too "timid".[9][10] In May 2013, President Maduro initiated Plan Patria Segura to reduce crime and provide security throughout the country,[11] though the plan had to be reinitiated a year later after the dismissal of the Minister of the Popular Power for Interior, Justice and Peace.[12][13] According to the United Nations, the Venezuelan government is lacking 20,000 investigative police.[14]

Drug trade

Venezuela is a significant route for drug trafficking, with Colombian cocaine and other drugs transiting Venezuela towards the United States and Europe. Venezuela ranks fourth in the world for cocaine seizures, behind Colombia, the United States, and Panama.[15]

In 2007, authorities in Colombia claimed that through laptops they had seized on a raid against Raul Reyes, they found documents purporting to show that Hugo Chávez offered payments of as much as $300 million USD to the FARC.[16] According to Interpol, the files found by Colombian forces were considered to be authentic.[17]

Independent analyses of the documents by a number of U.S. academics and journalists have challenged the Colombian interpretation of the documents, accusing the Colombian government of exaggerating their contents.[18][19] According to Greg Palast, the claim about Chavez's $300 million is based on the following (translated) sentence: "With relation to the 300, which from now on we will call 'dossier', efforts are now going forward at the instructions of the cojo [slang term for 'cripple'], which I will explain in a separate note." Palast suggests that the "300" is supposedly a reference to "300 prisoners" (the number involved in a FARC prisoner exchange) and not "300 million".[18]

In 2008, the U.S. Department of Treasury accused two senior Venezuelan government officials and one former official of providing material assistance for drug-trafficking operations carried out by the Jose Miguel Insulza, testified before the U.S. Congress that "there are no evidences [sic]" that Venezuela is supporting "terrorist groups", including the FARC.[21]

In March 2012, Venezuela's National Assembly removed Supreme Court Justice Eladio Aponte Aponte from his post after an investigation revealed alleged ties to drug-trafficking;[22] on the day he was to face questioning, Aponte Aponte fled the country, and has sought refuge in the U.S., where he began to cooperate with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Department of Justice.[23][24][25] Aponte says that, while serving as a judge, he was forced to acquit an army commander who had connections with a 2 metric ton shipment of cocaine. Aponte also claimed that Henry Rangel, former defense minister of Venezuela and General Clíver Alcalá Cordones were both involved with the drug trade in Venezuela.[24] Venezuelan officials have also been allegedly working with Mexican drug cartels.[24]

In September 2013, an incident involving men from the Venezuelan National Guard placing 31 suitcases containing 1.3 tons of cocaine on a Paris flight astonished French authorities.[24] On 15 February 2014, a commander for the Guard was stopped while driving to Valencia with his family and was arrested for having 554 kilos of cocaine in his possession.[26]

Murder and violent crimes

Murder rate (1 murder per 100,000 citizens) from 1998 to 2013. Sources: OVV: Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia, Fusion TV, PROVEA & UN: UNODC 2011, UNODC 2014

Venezuela is currently among the countries with the highest murder rates in the world.[27][28] According to Gareth A. Jones and Dennis Rodgers in their book Youth violence in Latin America: Gangs and Juvenile Justice in Perspective, the murder rate according to PROVEA figures in 1990 was 13 per 100,000 and increased to 25 per 100,000 in 1999. Jones and Rodgers continue by stating that "With the change of political regime in 1999 and the initiation of the Bolivarian Revolution, a period of transformation and political conflict began, marked by a further increase in the number and rate of violent deaths" showing that in four years, the murder rate had increased to 44 per 100,000.[29]

Recently, the murder rate in Venezuela is the subject of some dispute according to the Associated Press, since Venezuelan government has slowly denied access to homicide statistics.[30] According to the Venezuelan government, the homicide rate in 2013 dropped 50 to 39 per 100,000.[30] A [35] However, The New York Times states that according to news reports, data from human rights groups, such as the OVV's statistics, may actually be undercounting the number of those murdered in Venezuela.[31]

According to the Venezuelan non-governmental organization PROVEA, unlike other NGOs, the Venezuelan government excludes homicide data that includes fighting or police related deaths in its murder rate statistics.[28][36] PROVEA figures provided in the UN's 2014 Global Homicide Book put Venezuela's homicide rate at 53.7 murders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012, closer to the Venezuelan government's 2012 estimate,[30] but still the second highest peacetime murder rate in the world after Honduras (estimated at 90.4).[37][38]

Other homicide data

According to Sanjuan, 95% of Venezuela's homicide victims are men with 69% of them being between ages 15 and 34.[29] In 2000, the homicide rate for young men was 225 per 100,000 for young men.[29] Sanjuan data from 2000 shows that in the capital city of Caracas, 92% of homicides are due to firearms and that 83% of homicide victims died near their homes, 55% in public altercations and 55% of the homicides occurred on the weekend.[29] A more recent 2014 UNICEF report titled Hidden in Plain Sight, it was stated that in Venezuela, along with other Latin American countries, the leading cause of death for males between 10 and 19 is murder.[39]


Corruption in Venezuela is high by world standards, and was so for much of the 20th century. The discovery of oil had worsened political corruption,[40] and by the late 1970s, Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso's description of oil as "the Devil's excrement" had become a common expression in Venezuela.[41] Venezuela has been ranked one of the most corrupt countries on the Corruption Perceptions Index since the survey started in 1995. The 2010 ranking placed Venezuela at number 164, out of 178 ranked countries.[42]

According to some sources Venezuela's corruption includes widespread corruption in the police force.[43] Many victims are afraid to report crimes to the police because many officers are involved with criminals and may bring even more harm to the victims[44] with a 2013 Gallup study showing that only 26% of Venezuelans have faith in their local police.[1] Human Rights Watch claims that the "police commit one of every five crimes" and that thousands of people have been killed by police officers acting with impunity (only 3% of officers have been charged in cases against them).[10] The Metropolitan Police force in Caracas was so corrupt that it was disbanded and were even accused of assisting some of the 17,000 kidnappings.[45] Medium says that the Venezuelan police are "seen as brutal and corrupt more likely to rob you than help".[46]


Number of kidnappings in Venezuela 1989 - 2011.
Source: CICPC[47][48][49]
* Express kidnappings may not be included in data

In 2013, consulting firm Control Risk ranked Venezuela 5th in the world for kidnappings, only behind Mexico, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. The report stated that 33% of kidnappings occurred in the capital city of Caracas and that hundreds of kidnappings happen every year.[50] In 2011, the Venezuelan government's statistics reported an average of two kidnappings per day, while other estimates showed 50 kidnappings per day. According to the BBC article, 4 of 5 kidnappings are express kidnappings which are not included in government statistics. The article also explains the problem of police involvement with kidnappings, with the Venezuelan government admitting that 20% of crimes involve authorities and criminologist Mármol García stating that 90% of kidnappings go unreported in Venezuela.[14]

Human trafficking

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report 2014 by the State Department of the United States, "Venezuela is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor". The State Department also states that the "Government of Venezuela does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking" explaining that Venezuelan authorities trained government officials about trafficking, but the Venezuelan government "did not publicly document progress on prosecutions and convictions of trafficking offenders or on victim identification and assistance". Due to the Venezuelan government not complying to the standards of stopping human trafficking, the State Department placed Venezuelan on its "black list" as a Tier 3 country, which opened the possibility of Venezuela facing sanctions.[7][51][52]

Foreign Visitors

Venezuela is especially dangerous toward foreign travelers and investors who are visiting. This is due to Venezuela's economic problems. The murder, and that their own diplomatic travelers are required to travel in armored vehicles.[53][54] The United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office has advised against all travel to Venezuela.[55] Most visitors have been murdered during robberies and criminals do not discriminate against their victims. Recently, former Miss Venezuela 2004 winner Monica Spear and her husband were murdered with her 5 year old daughter being shot while visiting, and an elderly German tourist was murdered only a few weeks later.[56][57]

Crime Prevention


In the World Report 2014 by [58] In 2014, the UN called the state of the Venezuelan prison system "a tragedy".[59]

Lack of state authority

In Venezuelan prisons, there are reports of prisoners having easy access to firearms, drugs and alcohol.[60] According to Alessio Bruni of the United Nations Committee against Torture, "a typical problem of the prison system is gun violence, nearly circulating freely within prisons, causing hundreds and hundreds of people killed every year" with the UN committee alarmed at reports that between 2004 and 2014, 4,791 inmates were killed and 9,931 injured.[59]

Carlos Nieto, head of Window to Freedom, alleges that heads of gangs acquire military weapons from the state saying, “They have the types of weapons that can only be obtained by the country’s armed forces. ... No one else has these.” Use of internet and mobile phones are also a commonplace where criminals can take part in street crime while in prison. One prisoner explained how, “If the guards mess with us, we shoot them” and that he had "seen a man have his head cut off and people play football with it.”[60]

In a [61][62]

Edgardo Lander, a sociologist and professor at the Central University of Venezuela with a PhD in sociology from Harvard University explained that Venezuelan prisons are "practically a school for criminals" since young inmates come out "more sort of trained and hardened than when they went in". He also explained that prison are controlled by gangs and that "very little has been done" to control them.[63]

"El Coliseo"

In Venezuelan prisons, inmates partake in [64]

However a year later, one "Coliseum" in Uribana left 2 dead and 128 injured. Those injured had to be assisted by a church in the area.[65][66]

Overcrowded facilities

According to Alessio Bruni of the United Nations Committee against Torture, on average, Venezuelan prisons hold 231% of their capacity. Bruni stated as an example that the Tocorón prison in Venezuela holds 7,000 prisoners despite the designed capacity for 750.[59]

Venezuelan rights groups report that the 34 prisons in Venezuela hold 50,000 people but are only supposed to hold about one-third of that. In 2012, La Planta, a prison built in 1964 with a capacity of 350 inmates, held almost 2,500 inmates with most armed with heavy weapons.[67]

State crime prevention initiatives

During the presidency of the Hugo Chávez, more than 20 programs were created attempting to deter crime, though insecurity continued to increase following their implementation.[68] Chávez's successor, Nicolas Maduro, has also initiated programs trying to combat crime.

Ley contra el Secuestro y la Extorsión

In 2008, the National Assembly passed the Law Against Kidnapping and Extortion (Ley contra el Secuestro y la Extorsión), a law that penalties of up to 30 years in prison to address a kidnapping situation that was not covered by a specific law. Despite the introduction of the new law, the majority of cases are not resolved and only received the Venezuelan government's attention in high-profile cases.[14]

Plan Patria Segura

On 13 May 2013, President Nicolas Maduro initiated Plan Patria Segura saying "we have decided to fight to build a secure homeland".[69] The plan, created by [71]

Days after the replacement of the plan's creator Miguel Rodríguez Torres by Carmen Melendez Teresa Rivas as Minister of the Popular Power for Interior, Justice and Peace,[12] Melendez announced that the Venezuelan government would relaunch Plan Patria Segura for a second time.[13]


On 22 September 2014, President Maduro announced that his government would invest $47 million to create 60 new disarmament centers, and $39 million to fund a plan under which soldiers would patrol the most dangerous neighborhoods.[72] In a Cabo Vadillo (es) episode revealing crime in Caracas, it is stated that at the time of recording in 2014, there were over 5 million illegal firearms in a city of about 5 million people.[73] Colectivos in Venezuela stated to the Venezuelan government that they were not going to participate in the disarmament plan, stating that they were groups involved with the Bolivarian Revolution and that criminal gangs should instead be focused on.[70]

See also



  • World Drug Report 2010 Statistical Annex: Drug seizures.  


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