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Corrective Movement (Syria)

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Title: Corrective Movement (Syria)  
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Corrective Movement (Syria)

1970 coup
Part of the Cold War
Date 13 November 1970
Location Syria
Result *Overthrow of Salah Jadid and his leftist allies
  • Appointment of a Temporary Regional Command of the Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch
Belligerents
Syrian Government
Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
Hafez al-Assad loyalists
Commanders and leaders
Salah Jadid (POW)
Nureddin al-Atassi
Hafez al-Assad
Rifaat al-Assad
Mustafa Tlass
Casualties and losses
No mortal casualties

The Corrective Movement, also referred to as the Corrective Revolution, was a political movement led by Hafez al-Assad in 1970. The Corrective Movement was initiated by a coup d'état led by Assad on November 13th, 1970.[1] Assad then introduced a reform program on November 16th. These reforms are considered revolutionary in Syria, and were introduced in order to sustain and improve the "nationalist socialist line" of the state and party.[2]

1970 coup

Assad started planning to seize power shortly after the failed Syrian military intervention in the Black September crisis in Jordan.[3] While Assad had been in de facto command of Syrian politics since 1969, Salah Jadid and his supporters still held all the formal trappings of power.[3] After attending Gamal Abdel Nasser's funeral, Assad returned to Syria to attend the Emergency National Congress held on October 30, 1970.[3] At the congress, Assad was condemned by Jadid and his supporters, who formed the majority of the party delegates.[3] However, before attending the congress, Assad had ordered troops loyal to him to surround the building in which the congress was held.[3] Criticism of Assad's political position continued, but it took on a rather defeatist tone after Assad's troops surrounded the building, with the majority of delegates already knowing that they had lost the battle.[3] Assad and Mustafa Tlass were stripped of their government posts during the congress, although the move had little practical influence.[3]

When the National Congress broke up on 12 November 1970, Assad ordered loyalists to arrest the leading members of Jadid's regime.[4] While many leading middle men were offered posts in Syria's embassies abroad, Jadid refused, telling Assad, "If I ever take power you will be dragged through the streets until you die."[4] Assad, in response, imprisoned Jadid, who spent the rest of his life at Mezze prison.[4] There were no fatalities and the country remained calm following the coup.[4] The only proof to the outside world that something was amiss was the fact that official dailies, radio, and televisions stations either stopped publishing or were off the air.[4] A Temporary Regional Command was established shortly after, and on November 16, 1970 the new regime published their first decree.[4]

Reforms

Domestic

Political reforms

Assad's faction, which was far smaller than the pro-Jadid faction, began recruiting Aflaqites to top positions to cement their power.[5] Assad appealed directly to Shakir al-Fahham, one of the secretaries of the Ba'ath Party's founding congress in 1947.[6] However, despite trying to strengthen his hold on the party, when in a 1970 Regional Command meeting its members opposed Assad's motion of appointing a figurehead to lead the party, Assad went on to establish a separate power base apart from the party.[7]

As part of his "corrective movement," at the 11th National Congress Assad introduced a general revision of national policy. Included in these revisions were measures introduced to consolidate Assad's rule. His Ba'athist predecessors had restricted control of Islam in public life and government.[8] Because the Constitution allowed only Muslims to became president,[9] Assad, unlike Jadid, presented himself as a pious Muslim. In order to gain support from the ulama—the educated Muslim class— he prayed in Sunni mosques, even though he was an Alawite. Among the measures Assad introduced was the raising in rank of some 2,000 religious functionaries and the appointment of an alim as minister of religious functionaries and construction of mosques. He appointed a little-known Sunni teacher, Ahmad al-Khatib, as Head of State in order to satisfy the Sunni majority.[8] Assad also appointed Sunnis to senior positions in the government, the military and the party. All of Assad's prime ministers, defense ministers and foreign ministers, a majority of his cabinet, were Sunnis. In the early 1970s, Assad was verified as an authentic Muslim by the Sunni Mufti of Damascus and made the Hajj—the pilgrimage to Mecca. In his speeches, he often used terms such as jihad (a holy war) and shahada (martyrdom) when referring to fighting Israel.[9]

The coup turned Syria's social and political structures upside down. The Alawites, Assad's tribe, although no more than 12% of the population, came to occupy coveted positions in every sector of life in Syria.[1]

Economic reforms

Assad reverted his predecessors policy of radical economic socialism, and strengthened the private sector's role in the economy.[10] In many ways the Corrective Movement resulted in a tacit alliance between the political elite and the Damascene bourgeoise.

Foreign policy

The reforms also sought to normalize Syria's relations with the other Arab states (Syria had been isolated diplomatically during Jadid's short-lived rule).[10] Assad tried to establish working relations with Egypt and Saudi Arabia in order to establish the "so-called Cairo–Damascus–Riyadh axis" to strengthen security cooperation against Israel.[10] The cooperation agreement was effective, and when Egypt and Syria failed to win the October War, Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil producers ceased selling oil to the West.[10]

Legacy

Among Syrians the Corrective Movement is a national holiday known as the November 16 Day.[11][12]

When the communist regimes in the Eastern Bloc collapsed, an ideological crisis within the regime was generated.[13] However, Assad and his supporters hit back, stating that because of the "Corrective Movement under the leadership of the warrior Hafez al-Assad," the principles of economic and political pluralism, which had been introduced "some two decades" beforehand, safeguarded the Syrian regime from the possibility of collapse.[13]

Later, on January 27, 2000, Syrian foreign minister Farouk al-Sharaa stated, "I am not exaggerating when I say that the Corrective Movement, which took place in 1970 under the leadership of Hafez al-Assad ... has crystalized for the first time in modern Arab history a mature and realistic pan-Arab ideology."[14]

References

  1. ^ a b Patrick Seale (15 June 2000). "Hafez al-Assad". Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Hinnebusch 2002, p. 61.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Seale 1990, p. 162.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Seale 1990, p. 164.
  5. ^ a b Seale 1990, p. 171.
  6. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 171–172.
  7. ^ Lefevre 2013, p. 12.
  8. ^ a b Alianak 2007, pp. 129–130.
  9. ^ a b Reich 1990, p. 55.
  10. ^ a b c d Freedmen 2002, p. 179.
  11. ^ Weeden 1999, p. 42.
  12. ^ Ayalon 1993, p. 670.
  13. ^ a b Ziser 2001, p. 47.
  14. ^ Korany & Dessouki 2010, p. 430.

Bibliography

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