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Circulation (currency)

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Circulation (currency)

In monetary economics, circulation refers to the continuing use of individual units of a currency for transactions. Thus currency in circulation refers to the total value of currency (coins and paper currency) that has ever been issued minus the amount that has been removed from the economy by the central bank. More broadly, money in circulation refers to the total money supply of a country, which can be defined in various ways always including currency and also including some types of bank deposits.

Total currency in circulation

In 1990, total currency in circulation in the world passed 1 trillion USD. After 12 years, in 2002 this figure was 2 trillion USD, and in 2008 it had increased to 4 trillion USD, broken down by country as follows:[1]

  • European Union – 1035.2 billion USD, 24.30% of world total
  • USA – 850.7 billion USD, 19.97%
  • Japan – 762.4 billion USD, 17.90%
  • China – 492.3 billion USD, 11.56%
  • India – 140.3 billion USD, 3.29%
  • Russia – 110.8 billion USD, 2.60%
  • UK – 87.5 billion USD, 2.05%
  • Canada – 43.8 billion USD, 1.03%
  • Switzerland – 40.3 billion USD, 0.95%
  • Poland – 37.7 billion USD, 0.89%
  • Brazil – 37.3 billion USD, 0.88%
  • Mexico – 34.3 billion USD, 0.81%
  • Australia – 32.4 billion USD, 0.76%
  • Other countries – 554.9 billion USD, 13.03%

See also


  1. ^

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