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Chinese Canadians in British Columbia

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Chinese Canadians in British Columbia

The history of Chinese Canadians in British Columbia began with the first recorded visit by Chinese people to North America in 1788. Some 30-40 men were employed as shipwrights at Nootka Sound in what is now British Columbia, to build the first European-type vessel in the Pacific Northwest, named the North West America. Large-scale immigration of Chinese began seventy years later with the advent of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858. During the gold rush, settlements of Chinese grew in Victoria and New Westminster and the "capital of the Cariboo" Barkerville and numerous other towns. and throughout the colony's Interior, where many communities were dominantly Chinese. In the 1880s, Chinese labour was contracted to build the Canadian Pacific Railway. Following this many Chinese began to move eastward, establishing Chinatowns in several of the larger Canadian cities.

The Gold Rush

The Chinese first appeared in large numbers in the Colony of Vancouver Island in 1858 as part of the huge migration to that colony from California during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in the newly declared Mainland Colony. Although the first wave arrived in May from California, news of rush eventually attracted many Chinese from China itself.

Omineca Miner Ah Hoo at Germansens Landing in 1913. Many Chinese remained in the province's Interior and North long after the gold rushes. Some towns such as Stanley were predominantly Chinese for many years, while in the Fraser Canyon and even more remote areas such as the Omineca, Chinese miners stayed on to mine claims in wilderness areas.
In the goldfields, Chinese mining techniques and knowledge turned out to be better in many ways to those of others, including hydraulic techniques, the use of "rockers", and a technique whereby blankets were used as filter for alluvial sand and then burned, with the gold melting into lumps in the fire. In the Fraser Canyon, Chinese miners stayed on long after all others had left for the Cariboo Gold Rush or other goldfields elsewhere in BC or the United States and continued both hydraulic and farming, owned the majority of land in the Fraser and Thompson Canyons for many years afterwards. At Barkerville, in the Cariboo, over half the town's population was estimated to be Chinese, and several other towns including Richfield, Stanley, Van Winkle, Quesnellemouthe (modern Quesnel), Antler, and Quesnelle Forks had significant Chinatowns (Lillooet's lasting until the 1930s) and there was no shortage of successful Chinese miners.[1][2]

Immigration for the railway

Chinese labourers working on the Canadian Pacific Railway mile sections of the Canadian Pacific Railway from the Pacific to Craigellachie in the Eagle Pass in British Columbia. The railway from Vancouver to Craigellachie consisted of 28 such sections, 2% of which were constructed by workers of European origin.

When British Columbia agreed to join Confederation in 1871, one of the conditions was that the Dominion government build a railway linking B.C. with eastern Canada within 10 years. British Columbia politicians and their electorate agitated for an immigration program from the British Isles to provide this railway labour, but Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, betraying the wishes of his constituency, Victoria, by insisting the project cut costs by employing Chinese to build the railway, and summarized the situation this way to Parliament in 1882: "It is simply a question of alternatives: either you must have this labour or you can't have the railway."[3] (British Columbia politicians had wanted a settlement-immigration plan for workers from the British Isles, but Canadian politicians and investors said it would be too expensive).

In 1880, Andrew Onderdonk, an American who was one of the main Canadian Pacific Railway construction contractors in British Columbia, originally enlisted Chinese labourers from California. When most of these deserted the railway workings for the goldfields, Onderdonk and his agents signed several agreements with Chinese contractors in China's Guangdong province, Taiwan and also via Chinese companies in Victoria. Through those contracts more than 5000 labourers were sent as "guest workers" from China by ship. Onderdonk also recruited over 7000 Chinese railway workers from California. These two groups of workers were the main force for the building of Onderdonk's seven per cent of the railway's mileage. As was the case with non-Chinese workers, some of them fell ill during construction or died while planting explosives or in other construction accidents, but many deserted the rail workings for the province's various goldfields. By the end of 1881, the first group of Chinese labourers, which was previously numbered at 5000, had less than 1500 remaining as a large number had deserted for the goldfields away from the rail line Onderdonk needed more workers, so he directly contracted Chinese businessmen in Victoria, California and China to send many more workers to Canada.

Onderdonk engaged these Chinese labour contractors who engaged Chinese workers willing to accept only $1 a day while white, black and native workers were paid three times that amount. Chinese railway workers were hired for 200 miles of the Canadian Pacific Railway considered to be among the more difficult segments of the projected railway, notably the area that goes through the Fraser Canyon.

Demographics

In 2006, according to Statistics Canada data, the numbers of visible minority Chinese in Greater Vancouver included 168,210 in the city of Vancouver proper,[4] 75,730 in Richmond,[5] 60,765 in Burnaby,[6] 20,205 in Surrey,[7] 19,580 in Coquitlam,[8] 5,835 in Delta,[9] 3,770 in New Westminster,[10] and 3,360 in West Vancouver.[11]

As of 2011 most ethnic Chinese immigrants to British Columbia go to Vancouver, and of the overall provincial ethnic Chinese immigration most originate from Mainland China.[12]

Language

Historically Cantonese was the primary language of British Columbia's Chinese community. By 2012 Mandarin was displacing Cantonese in Greater Vancouver.[13] Cantonese and Mandarin are commonly spoken in Richmond.[14]

Institutions

In 1973 the Chinese Cultural Centre opened in the Vancouver Chinatown.[15]

Commerce

The tax registers of the City of Victoria show that Chinese businessmen were, after the Governor and coal-baron Robert Dunsmuir, the wealthiest men in the new city. Many of these were labour-contractors, a sector which would grow exponentially in the railway era, and opium merchants.[16]

Chinese-catering businesses in Richmond

Many Chinese malls which contain businesses catering to Chinese speakers are located in Richmond.[14]

Media

The Vancouver Sun operates Taiyangbao (simplified Chinese: 太阳报; traditional Chinese: 太陽報; pinyin: Tàiyáng Bào), a Mandarin-language newspaper.[13]

Politics

By 1985 the City of Vancouver had an ethnic Chinese alderman.[15]

In 2001 the Richmond Canadian Voters submitted three candidates for the Vancouver City Council, including two ethnic Chinese, but none of them won seats. Yee wrote that the public perceived the party as being "Chinese" "due to its leadership and conservative positions on group homes and liberal public education".[17]

In 2013 a petition arguing that Chinese-only signs were a problem in Richmond was submitted to the city council. The City Council responded by ignoring the petition.[18]

By 2014 the group Putting Canada First, which criticizes having Chinese-language signs in Greater Vancouver, was established. That year, its spokesperson, North Vancouver resident Brad Saltzberg, wrote a letter arguing against having Chinese language signs to the city council of West Vancouver.[19] The Mayor of West Vancouver, Michael Smith, criticized the movement.[20]

Education

Henry Yu stated in 2007 that significant ethnic Chinese populations are located in all Greater Vancouver school districts.[21]

Vancouver School Board schools are all integrated, with many school populations now predominantly Chinese-ethnic in composition. Private schools are also integrated, whether privately chartered or Catholic church-run. Chinese-language courses are available in most schools, and are popular with non-Chinese students, although regular curriculum instruction is in English.

In 1998 a group of parents of Chinese origins asked the Vancouver School Board to establish a new school. The school board opted not to establish the school. The requested school would have used school uniforms, assigned more homework than other public schools, and, in the words of Paul Yee, author of Saltwater City: Story of Vancouver's Chinese Community, "bring in discipline" and "back-to-basics subjects".[22]

Religion

Buddhist temple in Richmond

As of 2011 over 100,000 of the ethnic Chinese in Greater Vancouver were Christians, making up about 24% of the total population. 14% of the total population of Greater Vancouver ethnic Chinese stated that they were Buddhist.[23]

Greater Vancouver had Chinese Protestant and Chinese Catholic churches. Of the Protestant churches there are over 110 in the area. Church services are held in Cantonese, English, and Mandarin.[23]

There are over 26 Chinese Christian organizations in Greater Vancouver. They include theological organizations, radio stations, magazines, and newspapers.[23]

Greater Vancouver and Lower Mainland

As of 2011 there are over 450,000 ethnic Chinese in Greater Vancouver.[23] Vancouver received the title of being, outside of Asia, the "most Asian city" due to its large ethnic Chinese population.[20] Vancouver had ethnic Chinese residents when the city was founded in 1886. According to Graham E. Johnson, the author of "Hong Kong Immigration and the Chinese Community in Vancouver," people with origins from Hong Kong "have been especially notable in the flow of international migrants to British Columbia which, for all intents and purposes, has meant the Vancouver region."[24]

Richmond, in Greater Vancouver, had more ethnic Chinese residents than White residents in 2013. Ian Young of the South China Morning Post described Richmond as "the most Chinese city in North America."[25]

History

The first Chinese known to have been in British Columbia were a group of labourers brought in to build a ship at Nootka Sound, the Northwest America, who were sent back to China afterwards (though some traditions of the Nuu-chah-nulth say some remained and married, and that they had seen Chinese people before). The next Chinese arrived with the massive and sudden migration of 30,000 gold-seekers and merchants from San Francisco and the California goldfields with the Fraser Gold Rush of 1858, forming the nucleus of Victoria's Chinatown and leading to the establishment of others at New Westminster, Yale and Lillooet, though most Chinese gold-seekers were not in the newly emerged towns but busy prospecting and working the goldfields. Estimates indicate that about 1/3 of the non-native population of the Fraser goldfields was Chinese.[26][27] As more and more gold fields were found, Chinese spread out all over the colony, and confrontations at Rock Creek and Wild Horse Creek with mostly-American miners, but the colonial government intervened on the side of the Chinese (other similar situations were fairly rare, until the railway era).

Chinese miners were notable in many of the gold rushes in the coming decades, including the remote Omineca and Peace River Gold Rushes of the 1860s Cassiar Gold Rush of the 1870s. While Chinese were driven from the Similkameen Gold Rush in the 1880s, the Cayoosh Gold Rush at Lillooet in that same decade was entirely Chinese. In most goldfield towns there were no distinct Chinatowns, and in many towns and gold camps, Chinese miners and merchants were often the majority so the term "Chinatown" is inapt for them. Barkerville had an "official" Chinatown but Chinese dominated the population in the town's whole area, and many whites lived in the "official" Chinatown; nearby Richfield was near-entirely Chinese, as were many of the towns in the Cariboo goldfields. As the more impatient white miners moved on, Chinese took over their diggings, often pulling out more due to more advanced placer-mining techniques, and also obtained ranches and farms and Chinese retailers were often the mainstay of commerce in the waning goldfield towns.[28] In Victoria, the first tax register for that city indicates that of the ten richest men in the city, eight were Chinese (with the Governor and James Dunsmuir only ahead of them on the list). [29]

Chinese merchants from New Westminster were among the first to set up shop in Gastown, the townsite that sprang up next to the Hastings Mill property which was the historical kernel of what would become the City of Vancouver. Some were on Water Street but most early Chinese businesses (mostly bordellos and opium dens) were along what is now the 100 block of West Hastings Street. The use of Chinese labour in the clearing of the West End led to the winter riots of 1885 which saw Chinese residents flee to a refuge in a creek ravine around the then-southeast end of False Creek, thereafter known as China Creek. It was not until the 1890s that Chinese businesses began to relocate back into the growing city, along Dupont Street (now East Pender Street), forming the nucleus of Chinatown.[30][31] Until around 1980, Toronto's ethnic Chinese population became the largest in Canada then, Vancouver had the largest ethnic Chinese population in Canada.[32]

In the 1980s a wave of Chinese from Hong Kong came to Vancouver. Levels of Chinese coming from Hong Kong declined after the Handover of Hong Kong in 1997.[13] Vivienne Poy wrote that instances of antagonism towards ethnic Chinese and incidents of racial hatred targeting Chinese occurred by the late 1980s.[33]

In 1992 Vancouver had the second largest ethnic Chinese population outside of China, with San Francisco having the largest such population.[34]

By the 1990s white residents of some Vancouver neighborhoods criticized ethnic Chinese for demolishing older houses and building larger, newer houses in their place. Brian K. Ray, Greg Halseth, and Benjamin Johnson, authors of "The Changing ‘Face’ of the Suburbs: Issues of Ethnicity and Residential Change in Suburban Vancouver," wrote that many existing Whites perceived the ethnic Chinese and their new houses as being "an assault on traditional meanings associated with suburbia."[35]

In 2006 there were 396,000 ethnic Chinese in Vancouver.[25]

By 2012 most Chinese arriving in Hong Kong were from the Mainland, with some Chinese coming from Taiwan.[13]

A 2013 study by Dan Hiebert of the University of British Columbia predicted that by 2031 the Chinese population of Vancouver would be 809,000.[25]

By 2013 wealthy Mainland Chinese investors were buying property in Vancouver. Some existing members of the Vancouver community, including ethnic Chinese, criticized the new investors, arguing that they were driving up housing prices.[36] Ayesha Bhatty of the BBC wrote that "experts say there's little evidence to back up the fears."[13]

Geography

The Yaohan Food Court in Richmond

Ethnic Chinese are located throughout Vancouver.[37] 40% of the residents of a large portion of Southeast Vancouver are ethnic Chinese. The Granville and 49th area within South Vancouver also has a Chinese population.[12] Henry Yu, a University of British Columbia history professor, stated in 2007 that significant ethnic Chinese populations are located in all Greater Vancouver neighbourhoods.[21] The Vancouver Chinatown is the largest Chinatown in Canada.

In 1981 the vast majority of ethnic Chinese in Greater Vancouver lived in the Vancouver city limits. At the time Chinese were concentrated in eastern Vancouver, around Chinatown.[38] By the mid-1990s ethnic Chinese had moved to Kerrisdale and Shaughnessy. In those communities ethnic Chinese built large modern-style housing in place of Neo-Tudor and other style houses from the early 20th century.[39]

Richmond has a high concentration of ethnic Chinese. Ethnic Chinese make up 80% of the residents of the Golden Village area, focussed along No. 3 Road, which contains many Chinese businesses.[12] Douglas Todd of the Vancouver Sun wrote "Richmond remains the most striking bastion of Chinese culture".[12] In 1997 the newly-immigrated ethnic Chinese in Richmond were stereotyped as being, in the words of Ray, Halseth, and Johnson, "wealthy 'yacht people'".[40] Richmond had few Chinese in 1981, with most census tracts having fewer than 5% of their populations being ethnic Chinese and with no census tract having over 10% of its population be ethnic Chinese. By 1986 the proportion of Chinese in Richmond was increasing; in 1986 the city's 8,000 ethnic Chinese persons made up 8.3% of Richmond's total population and 9% of the Vancouver area's Chinese Canadians.[38] By 1991, 16.4% of Richmond's population was Chinese Canadian and 11% was Chinese immigrants. In 1997 Ray, Halseth, and Johnson wrote that "it appears that" new ethnic Chinese immigrants were bypassing Vancouver and moving directly to Richmond.[40]

Areas of northern Coquitlam also have ethnic Chinese. The Halifax Street and Kensington Street area of North Burnaby has a Chinese community.[12]

Terminology

Chinese Vancouverites and Chinese British Columbians coined the term "Saltwater City" for Vancouver, and the term Gold Mountain, normally used for and coined in relation to the California goldfields, is also used for British Columbia. The Chinese Benevolent Association's records in Barkerville used "the Colonies of T'ang [China]" in their documents and correspondence.

==="Hongcouver"===The city is sometimes called "Hongcouver",[20] by international media due to the size of the Chinese population; the term is no longer used locally and is regarded as derogatory.

The nickname "Hongcouver" refers to the large numbers of ethnic Chinese in Vancouver.[41] The nickname originated from the attraction of Hong Kong immigrants. The Government of British Columbia used tax incentives to attract Hong Kongers.[42]

John Belshaw, author of Becoming British Columbia: A Population History, wrote that Vancouver's "bitter elite" created the term.[43] Beginning in fall of 1988,[44] and through the early 1990s some Greater Vancouver businesses sold T-shirts with the word "Hongcouver" on them.[33] Use of the word by Vancouverites increased as more and more ethnic Chinese moved in.[45]

David Ley, author of Millionaire Migrants: Trans-Pacific Life Lines, described it as an "imagined" term bringing an "exaggerated cariacature" that was "fabricated" by media in North America and Hong Kong.[46] Ley argued that "The motivation for presenting this entity was in part satirical, possibly on occasion racist".[46] Miro Cernetig of the Vancouver Sun wrote that the term Hongcouver was "an era's impolitic catch-phrase for the xenophobia and palpable occidental unease in Vancouver at the prospect of a profound upheaval in society."[21] Nathaniel M. Lewis, author of "Urban Demographics and Identities," described the term as "derogatory."[47] Anu Sahota of the CBC described it as an "offensive term".[48] Katie King, the author of Networked Reenactments: Stories Transdisciplinary Knowledges Tell, wrote that Vancouver was "lampooned in economic racist terms" through the word "Hongcouver".[49][50]

Ley argued that there was also "insight" in the term "Hongcouver".[46] Linda Solomon Wood of the Vancouver Observer stated that Hongcouver was one of several affectionate terms for Vancouver.[51]

Lewis stated that "Hongcouver" was not as commonly used as it had been in the 1990s.[47] In 2007 Cernetig also stated that it was no longer commonly used in the city.[21] That year, Sahota stated that "Hongcouver" "persists today".[48]

Ian Young, a correspondent of the South China Morning Post (SCMP), titled his blog about the Hong Konger population in Vancouver "Hongcouver".[52]

Notable residents

References

  • Bloemraad, Irene. "Diversity and Elected Officials in the City of Vancouver" (Chapter 2). In: Andrew, Caroline, John Biles, Myer Siemiatycki, and Erin Tolley (editors). Electing a Diverse Canada: The Representation of Immigrants, Minorities, and Women. UBC Press, July 1, 2009. ISBN 0774858583, 9780774858588. Start p. 46.
  • Ironside, Linda L. Chinese- and Indo-Canadian elites in greater Vancouver : their views on education (Master's thesis) (Archive). Simon Fraser University. 1985. See profile at Simon Fraser University.
  • Johnson, Graham E. "Hong Kong Immigration and the Chinese Community in Vancouver" (Chapter 7). In: Skeldon, Ronald. Reluctant Exiles?: Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese (Volume 5 of Hong Kong becoming China). M.E. Sharpe, January 1, 1994. ISBN 1563244314, 9781563244315. Start p. 120.
  • Ng, Wing Chung. The Chinese in Vancouver, 1945-80: The Pursuit of Identity and Power (Contemporary Chinese Studies Series). UBC Press, November 1, 2011. ISBN 0774841583, 9780774841580.
  • Ray, Brian K., Greg Halseth, and Benjamin Johnson. "The Changing ‘Face’ of the Suburbs: Issues of Ethnicity and Residential Change in Suburban Vancouver." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume 21, Issue 1, pages 75–99, March 1997. Published online December 16, 2002. DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.00059.
  • Yee, Paul. Saltwater City: Story of Vancouver's Chinese Community. D & M Publishers, Dec 1, 2009. ISBN 1926706250, 9781926706252.

Notes

  1. ^ Mark S. Wade, The Cariboo Road, publ. The Haunted Bookshop, Victoria BC, 1979, 239pp. ASIN: B0000EEN1W
  2. ^ Robin Skelton, They Call It Cariboo, Sono Nis Press (December 1980), 237pp. ISBN 0-919462-84-7, ISBN 978-0-919462-84-7.
  3. ^ Pierre Berton, The Last Spike, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011763-6, pp249-250
  4. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Vancouver" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  5. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Richmond" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  6. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Burnaby" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  7. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Surrey" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  8. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Coquitlam" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  9. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Delta" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  10. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 New Westminster" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
  11. ^ "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 West Vancouver" (Archive). Government of British Columbia. Retrieved on October 28, 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d e Todd, Douglas. "Mapping our ethnicity Part 2: China comes to Richmond" (Archive). Vancouver Sun. May 2, 2012. Retrieved on October 24, 2014. "Ethnic Chinese are also focused in south Vancouver around Granville and 49th, in central Burnaby around Kensington and Halifax streets and in pockets of northern Coquitlam."
  13. ^ a b c d e Bhatty, Ayesha. "Canada prepares for an Asian future" (Archive). BBC. May 25, 2012. Retrieved on October 20, 2014.
  14. ^ a b Crowe, Paul. "Dharma on the Move: Vancouver Buddhist Communities and Multiculturalism" (Chapter 6). In: Harding, John S., Victor Sōgen Hori, and Alexander Soucy. McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP), June 1, 2014. ISBN 0773590498, 9780773590496. Google Books PT 112.
  15. ^ a b Ironside, p. 4.
  16. ^ James Morton. In the Sea of Sterile Mountains: The Chinese in British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: J.J. Douglas, 1974. (A thorough discussion of Chinese immigration and life in BC, railway politics and a detailed profile of the political agendas and personalities of the time)
  17. ^ Yee, p. 215.
  18. ^ Li, Wanyee. "Finger pointing in Richmond Chinese signage debate not constructive" (Archive). Vancouver Observer. March 26, 2013. Retrieved on October 19, 2014.
  19. ^ Seyd, Jane. "Chinese signs questioned in West Vancouver" (Archive). The Vancouver Sun. July 14, 2014. Retrieved on October 20, 2014.
  20. ^ a b c FlorCruz, Michelle. "Vancouver Anti-Chinese-Language Movement Focused On Chinese Language Signs, Advertisements" (Archive). International Business Times. July 17, 2014. Retrieved on October 20, 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d Cernetig, Miro. "Chinese Vancouver: A decade of change" (Archive). Vancouver Sun. Saturday June 30, 2007. Retrieved on October 27, 2014. "While Chinese in Toronto and Los Angeles tend to congregate in certain areas, says Yu, it is clear that every neighbourhood and school district in Vancouver has a large contingent of Chinese. It is now the norm."
  22. ^ Yee, p. 213.
  23. ^ a b c d "Vancouver’s Chinese flock to Christianity more than Buddhism" (Archive). The Vancouver Sun. February 5, 2011. Retrieved on October 22, 2014.
  24. ^ Johnson, p. 120.
  25. ^ a b c Young, Ian. "Chinese numbers in Vancouver, Toronto to double by 2031." South China Morning Post. Saturday April 6, 2013. Updated Tuesday April 9, 2013. Print title: "Chinese in two cities to double by 2031." Retrieved on October 20, 2014.
  26. ^ Claiming the Land, Dan Marshall, UBC Ph.D Thesis, 2002 (unpubl.)
  27. ^ McGowan's War, Donald J. Hauka, New Star Books, Vancouver (2000) ISBN 1-55420-001-6
  28. ^ The Resettlement of British Columbia, Cole Harris
  29. ^ In the Sea of Sterile Mountains: The Chinese in British Columbia, J. Morton, 1974
  30. ^ [Early Vancouver, Vol I, Maj. J.S. "Skit" Mathews, Vancouver Archives publ. 1939
  31. ^ From Milltown to Metropolis, Alan Morley
  32. ^ Ng, p. 7.
  33. ^ a b Poy, Vivienne. Passage to Promise Land: Voices of Chinese Immigrant Women to Canada. McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP), Apr 1, 2013. ISBN 077358840X, 9780773588400. Google Books p. PT22 (page unspecified). "A potential real-estate buyer was spat at by the person living next door, and “Hong-couver” T-shirts were sold everywhere."
  34. ^ "Vancouver: Gateway to Alaska." Cruise Travel. March/April 1992. Lakeside Publishing Co. ISSN 0199-5111. Vol. 13, No. 5. p. 13.
  35. ^ Ray, Halseth, and Johnson, p. 82.
  36. ^ Ghosh, Palash. "Vancouver’s Skyrocketing Housing Prices: Are Mainland Chinese Investors To Blame?" (Archive). International Business Times. December 17, 2013. Retrieved on October 20, 2014.
  37. ^ Bloemraad, p. 62. "As evident in Map 2.2, those of Chinese ethnicity are dispersed throughout the city,[...]"
  38. ^ a b Ray, Halseth, and Johnson, p. 88.
  39. ^ Ray, Halseth, and Johnson, p. 82. "Vancouver's elite inner suburban neighbourhood of Shaugnessy, as well as its middle class neighbour Kerrisdale, have attracted considerable media and academic attention in recent years due to a significant increase in the number of Chinese residents and the replacement of early twentieth century homes inspired by traditional English architecture (often neo-Tudor or Arts & Crafts styles) with monster homes that draw heavily on postmodern architectural styles." - The sources in footnote 4 date to 1993 and 1995
  40. ^ a b Ray, Halseth, and Johnson, p. 89.
  41. ^ Li, Guofang. Culturally Contested Pedagogy: Battles of Literacy and Schooling between Mainstream Teachers and Asian Immigrant Parents (SUNY series, Power, Social Identity, and Education). SUNY Press. February 1, 2012. ISBN 0791482545, 9780791482544. p. 1.
  42. ^ Schell, Paul and John Hamer. "Cascadia: The New Binationalism of Western Canada and the U.S. Pacific Northwest." In: Earle, Robert L. and John D. Wirth. Identities in North America: The Search for Community (Comparative studies in history, institutions, and public policy). Stanford University Press, 1995. ISBN 080478082X, 9780804780827. Start: 140. CITED: p. 144. "Vancouver, for example, has become "Hongcouver," as some call it, in part because British Columbia set out to attract immigrants from Hong Kong by offering tax incentives to those who were wealthy enough to start businesses and provide jobs."
  43. ^ Belshaw, John. Becoming British Columbia: A Population History. UBC Press, July 1, 2009. p. 59.
  44. ^ Doran, Charles F., Ellen Babby, American Academy of Political and Social Science. Being and becoming Canada, Volume 538 (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science; Being and becoming Canada). Sage Periodicals Press, 1995. ISBN 0803958846, 9780803958845. p. 204. "In Vancouver, when the appearance of "Hongcouver" T- shirts in the fall of 1988 indicated rising racial tensions," - See search page
  45. ^ Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments, Volumes 11-12. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments, 1999. p. 20. "As some parts of Vancouver have become increasingly similar to Hong Kong in physical and cultural terms, however, many locals have started to refer to their city as "Hongcouver,"[...]"
  46. ^ a b c Ley, David. Millionaire Migrants: Trans-Pacific Life Lines (Volume 97 of RGS-IBG Book Series). John Wiley & Sons, August 2, 2011. ISBN 1444399535, 9781444399530. Google Books PT213-http://books.google.com/books?id=bgwHSfMRjTUC&pg=PT214 214] (pages not specified). - The section begins at the header "Hongcouver"
  47. ^ a b Lewis, Nathaniel M. "Urban Demographics and Identities" (Chapter 10). In: Benton-Short, Lisa (editor). Cities of North America: Contemporary Challenges in U.S. and Canadian Cities. Rowman & Littlefield, December 12, 2013. ISBN 1442213159, 9781442213159. START: p. 247. CITED: p. 263.
  48. ^ a b Sahota, Anu. "Ideas of home" (Archive). CBC. Friday, May 18, 2007. Retrieved on October 27, 2014. "The influx of immigrants was such that Vancouver would be dubbed Hongcouver, an offensive term that persists today."
  49. ^ King, Katie. Networked Reenactments: Stories Transdisciplinary Knowledges Tell. Duke University Press. January 5, 2012. ISBN 0822350726, 9780822350729. p. 30.
  50. ^ King, Katie. "Globalizations, TV Technologies, and the Re-Production of Sexual Identities: Teaching Highlander and Xena in Layers of Locals and Globals." In: Lay, Mary M., Janice J. Monk, and Deborah Silverton Rosenfelt (editors). Encompassing Gender: Integrating International Studies and Women's Studies. Feminist Press at CUNY, 2002. ISBN 1558612696, 9781558612693. Start: p. 101. CITED: p. 107.
  51. ^ Wood, Linda Solomon. "Smokin' City" (Archive). Vancouver Observer. July 8, 2006. Retrieved on October 27, 2014.
  52. ^ John, Amelia. "The Jon McComb Show – September 30, 2014" (Archive). CKNW. September 30, 2014. "Also joining us is Ian Young, he’s a Correspondent for the South China Morning Post and is the author of the Hongcouver blog."

Further reading

  • Anderson, Kay. Vancouver's Chinatown: Racial Discourse in Canada, 1875-1980 (Volume 10 of McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History, ISSN 0846-8869). McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP), November 4, 1991. ISBN 0773508449, 9780773508446. - See profile at Google Books
  • Carrigg, David. "Home improvements" (Archive). Vancouver Courier. Thursday August 5, 2004.
  • Teo, Sin Yih. "Imaging Canada: Tracing the Cultural Logics of Migration Amongst PRC Immigrants in Vancouver" (Master's Thesis) (Archive). University of British Columbia (UBC), 2003. - See profile at UBC.
  • "The Hong Kong influx." CBC. 1997. Description page (Archived).
  • Lu, Duanfang. "The Changing Landscape of Hybridity: A Reading of Ethnic Identity and Urban Form in Vancouver" (Archive). Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review (TDSR). International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments (IASTE). Volume XI. Number II. 2000. p. 19-28.
  • "Perspectives on the 1907 Riots in Selected Asian Languages and International Newspapers" (溫哥華一九零七年排亞暴動中日英文史料) (Archive). University of British Columbia.
  • Ogura, Tamiko. "Vancouver from the 1907 Anti-Asian Riots to Hongcouver: A Century of Change Through Students’ Eyes" (Archive). Schema Magazine. June 19, 2007.

External links

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