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Cairn Terrier

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Title: Cairn Terrier  
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Subject: West Highland White Terrier, Terrier, List of fictional dogs, Earthdog trial, Norwich Terrier
Collection: Dog Breeds Originating in Scotland, Terriers
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Cairn Terrier

Cairn Terrier
Two Cairn Terriers showing variations in coat color.
Country of origin Scotland
Weight 10-16 pounds (4.5-6.8 kg)
Height 9–13 inches (23–33 cm)
Coat Abundant shaggy outer coat, soft downy undercoat. Can be cream, deep red, brindle, light gray, or black.[1]
Litter size 2-10
Life span 12–17 years
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

The Cairn Terrier is one of the oldest of the terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs. The breed was given the name cairn, because the breed's function was to hunt and chase quarry between the cairns in the Scottish highlands. [2]

Although the breed had existed long before, the name Cairn Terrier was a compromise suggestion after the breed was originally brought to official shows in the United Kingdom in 1909 under the name Short-haired Skye terriers. This name was not acceptable to The Kennel Club due to opposition from Skye Terrier breeders, and the name Cairn Terrier was suggested as an alternative. They are usually left-pawed,[3] which has been shown in dogs to correlate to superior performance in tasks related to scent. Cairn Terriers are ratters.


  • History 1
  • Description 2
  • Grooming 3
  • Health 4
    • Survey 4.1
  • Living conditions 5
  • Exercise 6
  • Famous Cairns 7
    • In media 7.1
    • In books 7.2
  • External video about the naming of the breed 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


Cairn originated in the Highlands of Scotland and the Isle of Skye,[4] initially grouped in the "Skye Terrier" class alongside the Scottish and West Highland White Terriers. In the early 1900s, the three breeds began to be bred separately.


A brindle Cairn Terrier
A wheaten Cairn Terrier

The Cairn Terrier has a harsh weather-resistant outer coat that can be black, cream, wheaten, red, sandy, gray, or brindled in any of these colours. Pure black, black and tan, and white are not permitted by many kennel clubs. While registration of white Cairns was once permitted, after 1917, the American Kennel Club required them to be registered as West Highland White Terriers. A notable characteristic of Cairns is that brindled Cairns frequently change colour throughout their lifetime. It is not uncommon for a brindled Cairn to become progressively more black or silver as it ages. The Cairn is double-coated, with a soft, dense undercoat and a harsh outer coat. A well-groomed Cairn has a rough-and-ready appearance, free of artifice or exaggeration. The Cairn Terrier was registered into the American kennel club in 1903.

Nine-week-old Cairn Terrier with Brindle coat.


Cairn Terrier

Cairn Terriers shed very little but should always be hand stripped. Using scissors or shears can ruin the dog's rugged outer coat after one grooming. Hand stripping involves pulling the old dead hair out by the roots. If done incorrectly this can cause discomfort to the dog, causing it to shy away from future hand stripping. Removing the dead hair in this manner allows new growth to come in. This new growth helps protect the dog from water and dirt.

Cairn Terrier ancestors are from Scotland, where the wire coat repels water and keeps the dog dry even in rainy or damp climates. Keeping the Cairn Terrier coat in its original state will prevent possible skin irritations. As dead hair is removed by stripping the coat, new growth comes in and the skin and coat will remain healthy. Clipper-cutting a Cairn might destroy the protective wire coat unique to this breed.

It is wise to have a pet examined to rule out heritable skin diseases if a Cairn is obtained from unknown sources (i.e. pet stores, rescues, or puppy mills).


These dogs are generally healthy and live on average about 12 to 17 years.[5][6]


Breeders, owners and veterinarians have identified several health problems that are significant for Cairns. Some of these diseases are hereditary while others occur as a result of non-specific factors (i.e. infections, toxins, injuries, or advanced age). Currently, the Cairn Terrier Club of America along with the Institute for Genetic Disease Control in Animals maintain an open registry for Cairn Terriers in hopes of reducing the occurrence of hereditary diseases within the breed. Breeders voluntarily submit their dogs' test results for research purpose, as well as for use by individuals who seek to make sound breeding decisions.

Some of the more common hereditary health problems found in the Cairn are:[7]

Living conditions

Cairn Terrier portrait

The Cairn Terrier will exist happily in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. Cairn Terriers are very active indoors and will suffice even without a yard.

Cairn Terriers should have a fenced-in yard, or be kept on a leash. Cairns are particularly stubborn; ethical breeders will strongly suggest obedience school or some other type of training to direct Cairn Terrier's focus on the owner as the one in command. If allowed to take control of the household, behavior problems may develop that can only be resolved by hiring a professional dog trainer. Many breeders will only sell puppies to dedicated dog owners who agree to basic obedience school.

Daily walks will help keep a Cairn Terrier happy and healthy. Fenced-in yards are strongly recommended for safety and well being.


Cairns are active dogs, and thus will need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs; however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfill their primal instinct to walk. Dogs who do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavior problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off leash, such as a large fenced in yard.

According to Temple Grandin in her book entitled "Animals Make Us Human," dogs need 45 minutes to one hour per day of Playing and Seeking. After fulfilling the Playing and Seeking, dogs become balanced and well-mannered.

Obedience school is often a good start to creating interactive play using words or commands for a dog to perform specific actions on cue. Teaching a Cairn Terrier tricks is also a clever way to direct their active energy into acceptable controlled dog games.

Famous Cairns

Black and gray Cairn Terrier

Terry, the dog who played Toto in the 1939 screen adaptation of The Wizard of Oz, was a brindle Cairn Terrier. Due to the identification of the State of Kansas with the original story The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a resident of Wichita has begun a drive to make the Cairn Terrier the official dog of the State of Kansas.[8] Terry also had a role in the Shirley Temple film Bright Eyes, and twelve other films.

In media

In books

  • In the Maximum Ride book series Total, the talking dog, is a Cairn Terrier.
  • In the first edition of L. Frank Baum's book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1899), though Baum did not specify in the text what breed Toto was, illustrator W. W. Denslow drew him as a Cairn Terrier.
  • In Donald Barthelme’s short story “Chablis”, the narrator says that his baby wants, according to his wife, a “Cairn terrier.”[10]

External video about the naming of the breed

External video
Cairn Terrier, naming


  1. ^ "Cairn Terrier". Vetstreet. 
  2. ^ - The breed is commonly used for hunting and burrowing prey among the cairns.
  3. ^ Paw preference
  4. ^ "Cairn Terrier History". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "Individual Breed Results for Purebred Dog Health Survey". 
  6. ^ Leroy, G. G.; Phocas, F.; Hedan, B.; Verrier, E.; Rognon, X. (2015). "Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds". The Veterinary Journal 203: 74.   mean=12.23 ± 4.18 median=13.42
  7. ^ "Health Related Concerns". Cairn Terrier Club of America Inc. Retrieved 12 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Wichita resident wants ‘Toto’ breed named state dog of Kansas". Lawrence Journal-World & 6 News. 13 May 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2005. 
  9. ^ Kilkelly, Daniel (17 August 2011). Neighbours' pet dog Audrey loses cancer battle"'".  
  10. ^ Barthelme, Donald. "Chablis." Forty Stories. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. 1. Print.

External links

  • Cairn Terrier at DMOZ
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