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Avigdor Lieberman

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Title: Avigdor Lieberman  
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Subject: Benjamin Netanyahu, Tzipi Livni, Yisrael Beiteinu, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), Ariel Sharon
Collection: 1958 Births, Ashkenazi Jews, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Alumni, Israeli Jews, Israeli Party Leaders, Israeli People of Moldovan-Jewish Descent, Israeli People of Russian-Jewish Descent, Israeli Settlers, Jewish Israeli Politicians, Jewish Politicians, Likud Politicians, Living People, Members of the 15Th Knesset (1999–2003), Members of the 16Th Knesset (2003–06), Members of the 17Th Knesset (2006–09), Members of the 18Th Knesset (2009–13), Members of the 19Th Knesset (2013–15), Members of the 20Th Knesset (2015–), Members of the Knesset, Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Israel, Moldovan Emigrants to Israel, Moldovan Jews, People Convicted of Assault, People from Chișinău, Soviet Emigrants to Israel, Soviet Jews, Yisrael Beiteinu Politicians
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Avigdor Lieberman

Avigdor Lieberman
Date of birth (1958-06-05) 5 June 1958
Place of birth Kishinev, Soviet Union
(now Chișinău, Moldova)
Year of aliyah 1978
Knessets 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
Faction represented in Knesset
1999–2006 Yisrael Beiteinu (National Union; 1999–2003)
2006–present Yisrael Beiteinu (Likud Beiteinu; 2012–2014)
Ministerial roles
2001–2002 Minister of National Infrastructure
2003–2004 Minister of Transportation
2006–2008 Deputy Prime Minister
2006–2008 Minister of Strategic Affairs
2009–2012 Deputy Prime Minister
2009–2012 Minister of Foreign Affairs
2013–2015 Minister of Foreign Affairs

Avigdor Lieberman (Hebrew: אביגדור ליברמן‎, IPA: ,    ; born Evet Lvovich Liberman, Russian: Эве́т Льво́вич Ли́берман, 5 June 1958)[1] is a Soviet-born Israeli politician who served as Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2009 to 2012, and again from 2013 to 2015. He also served as member of the Knesset and as Deputy Prime Minister of Israel. Lieberman's first term as Foreign Minister began in 2009 and ended with his resignation in December 2012, due to an investigation in which he was charged with fraud and breach of trust.[2] He is the founder and leader of the Yisrael Beiteinu party, whose electoral base are the immigrants from the former Soviet Union.[3] Following Lieberman's resignation, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stepped in and served as acting Foreign Minister for the duration of Lieberman's trial.[4] Lieberman's trial ended with an acquittal on 6 November 2013,[5] and he resumed his post as Foreign Minister on 11 November 2013.[6] He announced his resignation as foreign minister on 4 May 2015 and that his party would not join the new coalition.[7]

Lieberman first entered the Knesset in 1999, and has since served in numerous roles in the government, including as Minister of National Infrastructure, Minister of Transportation, Minister of Strategic Affairs, Deputy Prime Minister, and Foreign Affairs Minister.


  • Biography 1
    • Early life and early career 1.1
    • Later career 1.2
    • Term as Minister of Foreign Affairs 1.3
    • Personal life 1.4
  • Political positions 2
    • Lieberman Plan 2.1
    • Other issues 2.2
  • Mass media perception 3
  • Controversies 4
    • Statements towards Arab members of Knesset 4.1
    • Statements about Egypt 4.2
    • Statements about Palestinians 4.3
    • Conflict with Mossad 4.4
    • Relationship to Vladimir Putin 4.5
  • Investigations and allegations 5
    • Corruption investigation and trial 5.1
    • Conviction for assault 5.2
  • References 6
  • External links 7


Early life and early career

Lieberman was born on 5 June 1958 in Kishinev, Soviet Union (now Chişinău, Moldova). His father Lev (18 May 1921 – 2 July 2007) was a writer, who had served in the Red Army and spent seven years in a Siberian exile under Joseph Stalin's rule,[1] where he met Evet's mother Esther (2 July 1924 - 4 December 2014).[8] His family had a strong Jewish identity, and he spoke only Yiddish up to the age of three.[9] Inheriting a love of Russian literature from his father, Lieberman had dreamed of becoming a poet.[10] Lieberman attributes his forthright personality to his youth in the large Jewish community of 1970s Kishinev, saying: "Jews were 25 percent of the population of Kishinev... We were more affluent, better educated, and we showed it... The Jews of Moldova have this no-nonsense streak."[9]

After high school, Lieberman applied to study international law at Kiev University, but was, he claimed in interview, rejected for being Jewish. He then temporarily enrolled at the Chişinău Agriculture Institute with a hydrological land improvement major.[11] As a student, he won first prize for a play he wrote, and he dreamed of a literary career.[9]

Lieberman and his family immigrated to Israel in 1978, and Lieberman changed his first name to 'Avigdor'.[1] He initially considered living in a kibbutz before moving into Beersheba.[12] He was conscripted into the Israel Defense Forces and served in the Artillery Corps,[13] attaining the rank of Corporal.[1] After his military service, he enrolled in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and earned a Bachelor of Arts in international relations and political science.[14] During his studies he was active in the student group, "Kastel", associated with the Likud. Relations between Kastel and Arab student groups were tense and often deteriorated into violence. According to Maariv, based on the testimony of a witness who was a student at the time, Lieberman participated in a few of the violent clashes. Lieberman said that he was involved in two. Jamal Zahalka, an Arab Knesset member from Balad who was also a student at the time and active in Arab groups, claimed that he remembers Lieberman as yelling a lot but avoiding any of the rough action.[12]

On the eve of the 2009 elections in Israel, Bush administration had agreed to further building in the West Bank. Israel National News stated afterward that Lieberman and Prime Minister Netanyahu both have the same position of settlement expansion and for retaining Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel.[43]

In September 2009, Lieberman toured Africa to meet leaders and donate humanitarian aid, along with businessmen and officials from the Foreign Ministry, Finance Ministry, Defense Ministry, and National Security Council in an attempt to strengthen economic and trade ties and discuss the issue of the Iranian nuclear program.[44] As part of his policy to create more diplomatic openings for Israel, Lieberman also sought to strengthen ties with countries in Eastern and Central Europe. In a 2011 interview, Prime Minister Netanyahu said that Lieberman had opened important places where Israel had never really had diplomatic opening to before.[45]

Personal life

Nokdim as photographed from the air in early 2006.

Lieberman and his wife Ella (née Tzipkin, born 16 June 1959), also a Moldovan immigrant to Israel, have a daughter Michal (born 22 June 1983) and two sons, Yaakov (born 15 March 1988) and Amos (born 14 September 1990). They live in the Israeli settlement of Nokdim, located in the Judean Desert of the West Bank, where they have resided since 1988.[1] Lieberman stated that, despite having lived there for so long, he is willing to leave his home as part of a peace agreement.[46]

He speaks Russian, Romanian, Hebrew, Yiddish[9] and (less fluently) English.[47]

Lieberman has a passion for Russian literature - stating that Pushkin is today celebrated more widely in Israel than he is in Russia. He often jokes about literary figures - once claiming to Putin that Pushkin was a descendent of Ethiopian Jews.[48]

Lieberman's mother, Esther Lieberman, died on December 4, 2014, forcing a speech to be made in the United States to be cancelled so that Lieberman could attend the funeral.[8]

Political positions

Lieberman Plan

According to Lieberman, "The peace process is based on three false basic assumptions; that Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the main cause of instability in the Middle East, that the conflict is territorial and not ideological, and that the establishment of a Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders will end the conflict."[49]

In late May 2004, Lieberman proposed a plan in which the populations and territories of Israeli Jews and Arabs, including some Israeli Arabs, would be "separated". According to the plan, also known as the "Populated-Area Exchange Plan", Israeli Arab towns adjacent to Palestinian Authority areas would be transferred to Palestinian Authority, and only those Arab Israelis who migrated from the area to within Israel's new borders and pledged loyalty to Israel would be allowed to remain Israeli citizens. On 30 May 2004, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon condemned Lieberman's statements, stating "We regard Israeli Arabs as part of the State of Israel."[50] On 4 June 2004, as the disputes over the up-coming disengagement plan grew more intense, Sharon dismissed Lieberman from the cabinet.[51][52]

After the 2009 Israeli elections, Lieberman said he changed his mind in recent years and decided to support the creation of a Palestinian state. He wrote in a letter to The Jewish Week that he "advocates the creation of a viable Palestinian state", and told The Washington Post that he would agree to the evacuation of Nokdim "if there really will be a two-state solution". He stated in the Knesset that "reality changes" and that his shift had occurred over the last few years.[53] In his The Jewish Week article, Lieberman tried to explain his party's "no loyalty – no citizenship" campaign by writing: "During Operation Cast Lead in Gaza, I was appalled by the calls for the destruction of the State of Israel and for renewed suicide bombings that some Israeli Arab leaders called for at pro-Hamas rallies. Although 'responsible citizenship' had always been part of our platform, I realized that this was a burning issue that had to take top priority."[54] He stated his "responsible citizenship" platform and compared his position to the express policy of nations around the world, saying: "In the U.S., those requesting a Green Card must take an oath that they will fulfill the rights and duties of citizenship."[55]

On 5 January 2014, Lieberman again brought up his plan, saying that he would not support any peace plan that did not include such "an exchange".[56] He said that when he talks about it, he refers to the Triangle and Wadi Ara.[56]

Other issues

Lieberman supports Israeli membership in the European Union and NATO.[57] He considers Iran a serious threat to Israel, but initially came out in favor of further political/economic sanctions and opposed a military strike, saying that he cannot imagine the implications of armed action.[46] However, Haaretz later reported that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak persuaded Lieberman to switch sides and support an attack.[58]

While his party is sometimes described by the news media[59] as doctrinally secular and aiming to reduce the role of the rabbinical system in government, it actually supports the continuation of the role of Orthodox rabbinical courts, but wants more nationally-minded religious people, rather than the ultra-orthodox, in charge.[60] It does not advocate introducing civil marriage within Israeli law, but rather to find a solution to some of those who cannot marry under such laws.[59] It does not advocate a separation of religion and state in Israeli society.[60]

In response to possible charges by the International Criminal Court, Lieberman has called for the court to be defunded.[61]

Mass media perception

A large number of mass media sources within and outside of Israel have labelled Yisrael Beiteinu and Lieberman as right wing [62][63][64][65][66] to far right[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77] or ultra-nationalist.[62][68][78][79][80][81][82][83] However, in general, Israelis are divided on how to characterize Lieberman's politics.[84][85][86] In a 2014 poll conducted in Israel, 62% saw Lieberman as a national leader.[87]

Yisrael Beiteinu has shown support for a two-state solution and were also noted for a secularist approach upon leading new legislation for civil marriage in Israel as well as pushing for some relaxation in the conversion process. Several commentators, however, noted that these positions do not coincide with the party's platform.[88][89][90] These positions which are contradictory to the tradition of right wing politics in Israel[91] had been explained by Gershom Gorenberg as that following the Six Day War, opinions were split regarding the occupied territory, where being right-wing meant a position of holding onto the territory while being left-wing addressed a high level of willingness to give that territory away. He notes Lieberman to not be a right-winger by those terms as he's talking about giving occupied lands as well as land from sovereign Israel.[92]


Statements towards Arab members of Knesset

A polarizing figure within Israeli politics, Lieberman is quoted as saying, "I've always been controversial because I offer new ideas. For me to be controversial, I think this is positive."[23] Lieberman has called to redraw the border between Israel and the West Bank so that Israel would include large Jewish settlement blocs and the Palestinian state would include large Arab-Israeli population centers. He proposed that Israel's citizens should sign a loyalty oath or lose their right to vote.

In November 2006, Lieberman, who described Arab members of the Knesset that meet with Hamas as "terror collaborators", called for their execution: "World War II ended with the Nuremberg Trials. The heads of the Nazi regime, along with their collaborators, were executed. I hope this will be the fate of the collaborators in [the Knesset]."[93]

The comment was attacked as racist by Eitan Cabel, a Labor party representative, and Ahmad Tibi, leader of the Arab party Ta'al and one-time advisor to Yasser Arafat, who demanded that "a criminal investigation be initiated against Lieberman for violating the law against incitement and racism".[93][94] Tibi strongly objected to Lieberman's ministerial appointment, describing him as "a racist and a fascist". Labour minister Ophir Pines-Paz, who resigned over Lieberman's appointment, echoed Tibi's remarks, saying that Lieberman was tainted "by racist declarations and declarations that harm the democratic character of Israel".[95]

In remarks in the Knesset in March 2008, shortly after the 6 March attack at Jerusalem's Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, Lieberman commented that "yesterday's attack can not be disconnected from the Arab MKs incitement, which we hear daily in the Knesset."[96] Directing his comments at Arab MKs whose comments Lieberman describes as anti-Israel incitement, he added that "a new administration will be established and then we will take care of you."[97]

Statements about Egypt

In 1998, news reports stated that Lieberman suggested the bombing of the Aswan Dam in retaliation for Egyptian support for Yasser Arafat.[98][99] In 2001, reports stated that he told a group of ambassadors from the Former Soviet Union that if Egypt and Israel were ever to face off militarily again, that Israel could bomb the Aswan Dam.[27][100]

Since the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty, which followed Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's historic visit to Israel, multiple Israeli heads of state have visited Egypt on numerous occasions. However, Sadat's successor, Hosni Mubarak, visited Israel only once—for Yitzhak Rabin's funeral in 1995[101]—and never participated in talks on Israeli soil. In 2008, while on the Knesset speaker's podium during its memorial for Rehavam Ze'evi, Lieberman raised the issue and said, "Mubarak never agreed to come here as president. He wants to talk to us? Let him come here. He doesn't want to talk to us? He can go to hell."[102]

Prime Minister Nazi propaganda.[102]

After Netanyahu began his term as Prime Minister in March 2009, government aides met with Egyptian officials and told them that Lieberman's role should not be a reason for tension between the two countries.[100] News reports had previously been issued claiming that Egypt would not work with the Netanyahu administration unless Lieberman personally apologized.[103][104] The administration labeled them "inaccurate and out of all proportion".[103] On 9 April, Mubarak invited Netanyahu to meet with him personally in Sharm e-Sheikh.[104] Unofficial channels for discussion were also reportedly being considered.[105]

During a meeting with Egyptian intelligence chief Omar Suleiman in April 2009, Lieberman made an attempt at an apology, expressing "his respect and appreciation for Egypt's leading role in the region and his personal respect for Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Minister Suleiman".[106]

On 21 August, Lieberman said that it is important for Israel to make sure that the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty is upheld, and not to remain silent as Egyptian military forces enter the Sinai. Concern was raised by Israeli officials over Egyptian failure to notify Israel about the deployment of tanks in the Sinai, which violates the peace treaty. Lieberman said, "We must make sure that every detail is upheld, otherwise we'll find ourselves in a slippery slope as far as the peace treaty is concerned."[107] As instability in the Sinai continued into the next month, Lieberman responded to calls to deploy more troops with "The problem in Sinai is not the size of the forces, it is their readiness to fight, to put pressure and to carry out the job as is needed."[108]

On 28 August, Lieberman invited Egyptian President Morsi to visit Israel, after being encouraged by Morsi'is statements in late August that the Israel-Egypt peace treaty was secure. Lieberman said, "We certainly hope to see Morsi hosting official Israeli representatives soon; we want to see him giving interviews to Israeli media; we want to see him in Jerusalem as President (Shimon) Peres' guest."[109]

Statements about Palestinians

Following a series of attacks on Israelis perpetrated by Palestinian militants during a three-day period in March 2002, Lieberman proposed issuing an ultimatum to the Palestinian National Authority to halt all militant activity or face wide-ranging attacks. He said, "if it were up to me I would notify the Palestinian Authority that tomorrow at ten in the morning we would bomb all their places of business in Ramallah, for example."[110][111] This led then Foreign Minister Shimon Peres to respond that excessive military measures could lead to accusations of war crimes[110] and that the Israeli administration must not "escalate the situation".[112]

In July 2003, reacting to a commitment made by then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to the US, where amnesty could be given to approximately 350 Palestinian prisoners including members of Hamas and Islamic Jihad, Lieberman rejected a chance to participate in the related committee and said "It would be better to drown these prisoners in the Dead Sea if possible, since that's the lowest point in the world,"[113][114][115] Lieberman continued, according to Galei Tzahal ('Israel Army Radio'), by stating his willingness, as Minister of Transport, to supply buses to take the prisoners there.[116] Lieberman's suggestion also led to confrontation between Lieberman and Arab-Israeli MKs Ahmed Tibi (Hadash-Ta'al), Jamal Zahalka (Balad), Taleb el-Sana, Abdelmalek Dahamsha (United Arab List) as well as then opposition leader Shimon Peres.[117]

In January 2009, during the Gaza War, Lieberman argued that Israel "must continue to fight Hamas just like the United States did with the Japanese in World War II. Then, too, the occupation of the country was unnecessary."[118] This threat has been interpreted by some media commentators, including Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, as an allusion to Hiroshima and Nagasaki and as advocacy for a nuclear strike on Gaza.[14][119][120][121][122]

In January 2014, according to Haaretz, Lieberman would not support any peace agreement that did not include the exchange of Israeli Arab land and population. Lieberman stated: "I will not support any peace deal that will allow the return of even one Palestinian refugee to Israel."[123]

On 8 March 2015 he stated at a conference in Herzliya:

'Whoever is with us should get everything. Whoever is against us, there’s nothing else to do. We have to lift up an axe and remove his head, otherwise we won’t survive here. There is no reason that Umm al-Fahm will be part of Israel.'[124]

This was interpreted by the JTA as meaning that Israeli Arab citizens who betray or oppose the Jewish state should be beheaded.[125] However, Lieberman supports a territorial partition of Israel, whereby Israel would cut off Arab-Israeli areas and transfer them to a future Palestinian state.[126]

Conflict with Mossad

In 2011, Lieberman became the first Foreign Minister to sever ties with the Mossad. Lieberman ordered the foreign ministry to boycott the Mossad, stop sharing information and stop inviting Mossad officials to discussions and meetings. This was after Lieberman said the Mossad has not followed the normal procedures.[127]

Relationship to Vladimir Putin

After the 2011 Duma election, in which Russian President Vladimir Putin's party United Russia won, Lieberman was the first politician to describe them as "absolutely fair, free and democratic".[128][129] Putin has described Lieberman's own political career as "brilliant".[130] Lieberman's pro-Russian stance and perceived friendly relations with Putin have also drawn criticism from fellow Israelis.[131]

Investigations and allegations

Corruption investigation and trial

Some of Lieberman's connections with local and foreign businessmen were under police investigation. Lieberman allegedly received millions of shekels from various entrepreneurs while serving as member of Knesset; under Israeli law, MKs are not allowed to receive any payment beyond their salary. One claim was that Michael Cherney paid a company called Path to the East large amounts of money between the years 1999 and 2006, and that these sums were then allegedly passed on to Lieberman as a bribe. Other allegations concern a company called M.L.1, founded by Lieberman's daughter Michal when she was 21.[132] These allegations concern money transferred to M.L.1 from unknown sources outside Israel; the money was later allegedly used for paying salaries to Avigdor and Michal Lieberman.[133] Lieberman was also under investigation for receiving a bribe from Austrian-Jewish businessman Martin Schlaff.[134]

Lieberman denies all allegations of wrongdoing in these cases, and claims that the police are conspiring against him. In particular, he has pointed to the proximity of his investigation to the 2009 Israeli elections and said that such investigations are "part of my routine before every parliamentary election."[133] Allegations of bias on the part of the police have also been reported in Arutz Sheva, which reported that the investigation, which had been "ongoing for years, suddenly became active again once [Lieberman] left the government" in January 2008.[135]

On 2 April 2009, Lieberman was questioned by police on suspicion of corruption for at least seven hours at the national squad headquarters in central Israel. It was part of an ongoing investigation examining his business dealings. Lieberman denied all allegations. He claimed the investigation has been dragged out, and had filed a petition to the court requesting a speedy process.[136]

On 24 May 2010 the Israel Police recommended Lieberman's indictment for Breach of Trust, regarding the suspected receipt of classified information concerning ongoing criminal investigations into his activities. Former ambassador to Belarus, Ze'ev Ben Aryeh was also recommended for indictment.[137] On 13 April 2011, the State Prosecutor's Office announced that it had decided to charge Lieberman with fraud, money laundering, breach of trust and witness tampering.[138] The hearing was set for 17–18 January 2012.[139] On 13 December 2012, a CNN breaking news blog post stated that the Israeli Justice Ministry had decided to only charge him with breach of trust and fraud, and not the more serious witness tampering and money laundering corruption charges.[140] on 14 December 2012, Lieberman announced that he was removing his immunity and resigned as Foreign Minister.[141] His trial began on 17 February 2013, and ended on 6 November 2013, with an acquittal. The three judges voted unanimously to acquit him. In the verdict, they wrote that while Lieberman had acted improperly in failing to inform the Foreign Ministry of his past dealings with Ben Aryeh, he was not guilty of criminal activity, as he had not been aware of the seriousness of the circumstances, and his appointment of Ben Aryeh had not been a promotion.[142] Lieberman returned to his position as Foreign Minister on 11 November 2013, after the Israeli cabinet had approved his re-appointment to the office the previous day.

Conviction for assault

On 24 September 2001, Lieberman acknowledged in the Jerusalem District Court that he attacked a twelve-year-old youth from Tekoa, who had hit his son. The incident occurred in December 1999 in the Nokdim settlement. His son told him that three boys hit him. Lieberman located one of the boys in a trailer and hit him in the face. After the boy fell and was injured, Lieberman grabbed him by the shirt-collar and arm, took him back to his home in Tekoa and threatened that he would attack him again if he returned to Nokdim.[143][144] He was charged with assaulting and threatening him. Lieberman was convicted based on his own confession in the context of a plea bargain. His attorney asked the judges, in the context of the arrangement, to restrict his punishment to a fine amid the defendant's promise that he will not commit such an act in the future. The judge ultimately ruled that Lieberman must pay the child a compensation of 10,000 NIS, and an additional fine of 7,500 NIS.


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    - On Galei Tzahal it was reported that Lieberman said at the cabinet meeting that as Minister of Transport he's willing to provide buses to take them at sea and drown them there.
    Hebrew: בגלי צה"ל דווח שליברמן אמר בישיבת הממשלה שכשר התחבורה הוא מוכן לספק אוטובוסים לאסירים שיקחו אותם לים ולהטביע אותם שם.
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  143. ^ ליברמן הורשע בבית המשפט בעיסקת טיעון בתקיפת קטין ואיומים [Lieberman was convicted in court in a plea bargain with assaulting a minor and threats].  
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External links

  • Avigdor Lieberman on the Knesset website
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Avigdor Lieberman collected news and commentary at Ha'aretz
  • Avigdor Lieberman collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post
  • Avigdor Lieberman collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Works by or about Avigdor Lieberman in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • 'I'm a Realist' Joshua Hammer essay on Lieberman from The New York Review of Books
  • Official website of Yisrael Beiteinu
  • Lieberman, Avigdor (25 February 2009). "The Case For 'Responsible Citizenship' in Israel".  
  • Weymouth, Lally (1 March 2009). "A Conversation With Avigdor Lieberman".  
Party political offices
New office Leader of Yisrael Beiteinu
Political offices
Preceded by
Tzipi Livni
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Benjamin Netanyahu
Preceded by
Benjamin Netanyahu
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Benjamin Netanyahu
On 7 May,

In early May 2009, Lieberman went on a European diplomatic mission, which went through Rome, Paris, Prague, and other cities. He met with his Foreign Minister counterparts, such as Frank-Walter Steinmeier of Germany, and he also paid his respects at Berlin's Holocaust memorial, laying a wreath at the 19,000-square-meter monument.[37] In 4 May 2009, in a press conference in Italy, Avigdor Lieberman skirted around the issue of a Palestinian state, stating that "This government's goal is not produce slogans or make pompous declarations, but to reach concrete results," adding that the government was still in the process of formulating its foreign policy.[38] On another occasion in his trip, he stated that "Nothing is going to come out of this 'Peace Industry' except for conferences in five star Hotels and a waste of money."[39] Generally speaking, the diplomatic mission was private and subject to restricted news coverage.[37][39] In his remarks at the 2013 Sderot Conference for Society, Lieberman stated his support of multi-directional foreign policy, one that is more diverse. The weight of his statement came at a time when a preliminary deal between Israel and the US with Iran, which would partially freeze its rogue nuclear program, was in opposition.[40]

Lieberman and Prime Minister Netanyahu both planned to broaden the PR campaign overseen by the Foreign Ministry about Iran. Part of its new campaign focuses on Tehran's abuse of human rights and sponsorship of terrorism and also aims to appeal to those, such as the gay and lesbian communities, less concerned with Iran's nuclear aspirations and more fearful of its human rights abuses and mistreatment of minorities.[36] Despite his status within the government, the Israeli police have questioned Lieberman three times from he took office to 11 April about the ongoing corruption investigation.[33]

[35] He argued that a stable, successful peace effort requires Americans to focus on preventing Iran from developing a nuclear weapon.[33] Lieberman himself said in April, "The situation is deadlocked, and it is not because of us."[35] Lieberman's office stated in early April that peace talks will continue when Palestinian government officials crack down on attacks against Israelis, after which the Israeli administration will reciprocate by freezing

Lieberman had previously opposed the road map at the time of its adoption.[30] He left Ehud Olmert's government due to his opposition to the Annapolis Conference.[31] Lieberman followed his 1 April message with concerns that "[others] stand over us with a stopwatch" and that responsible and serious formulations of policy will take between one and two months.[32]

Upon taking office as the Tenet and Zinni documents.[29]

Term as Minister of Foreign Affairs

On 25 October 2012, Lieberman and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that their respective political parties, Likud and Yisrael Beiteinu, had merged and would run together on a single ballot in Israel's 22 January 2013 general elections. "In view of the challenges we're facing, we need responsibility on a national level.... We're providing a true alternative, and an opportunity for the citizens to stabilize leadership and government," Lieberman said.[28]

Yisrael Beiteinu, which was described at times as Lieberman's "one man's party" for its media-closed meetings and party members' reluctance to give interviews,[26] emerged as the third largest party in Israel after 2009 legislative election and on 16 March, it entered into the coalition government led by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[27] Lieberman was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister.

Lieberman resigned his cabinet position and Yisrael Beiteinu left the coalition in January 2008; he cited his opposition to the resuming peace talks, saying that "Negotiations on the basis of land for peace are a critical mistake ... and will destroy us."[25]

In the 2006 legislative election, Lieberman's party split from the National Union to run alone. The party won eleven seats, a gain from its previous six seats. It was initially in the opposition, but after a few months, in October 2006, Lieberman and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert signed a coalition agreement under which Lieberman became the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Strategic Affairs, a newly created position with a focus towards the strategic threat from Iran.[23] In December 2006, he called Iranian nuclear proliferation "the biggest threat facing the Jewish people since the Second World War".[23] He advocated that Israel join the European Union and NATO.[24]

In May 2004, Lieberman was dismissed from the cabinet by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon due to his opposition to the Gaza disengagement,[22] and Yisrael Beiteinu left the government in June in protest of the disengagement.

In the 2003 legislative election, Yisrael Beiteinu ran on a joint list with the National Union. The joint list won seven seats, with Yisrael Beiteinu being allotted four of them. In February 2003, Lieberman was appointed Minister of Transport, and chose to resign from the Knesset to take a seat in the Cabinet. He maintained leadership of the party and returned to the Knesset in 2006—later, he would simultaneously serve in the Knesset and Cabinet.

In March 2001, Lieberman was appointed Minister of National Infrastructure, but resigned the post in March 2002.

My countryman may be a Jew, a Muslim, a Christian - I do not differentiate people by religion. Let them be religious or secular, the main thing that they are a true citizen of the State of Israel.

Avigdor Lieberman, 2005 [21]

In 1997, Lieberman resigned from Likud after Prime Minister Netanyahu granted concessions to the Palestinians in the Wye River Memorandum, and expressed disappointment when Yisrael BaAliyah, a new immigrant's party headed by Natan Sharansky that had right-center leanings, did not quit the coalition government in protest. In 1999, Lieberman formed the Yisrael Beiteinu party to create a platform for Soviet immigrants who supported a hard line in negotiations with the Palestinians. The party ran for the Knesset during the 1999 legislative election, and ran on a joint list with Aliyah, a party formed by Michael Nudelman and Yuri Stern, who had broke away from Yisrael BaAliyah. The new party won four seats, one of which was taken by Lieberman. Lieberman served on the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee and State Control Committee, and as Chairman of the Israel-Moldova Parliamentary Friendship League.[20]

Later career

While studying at the Hebrew University, Lieberman was busy job hunting and was given work by Tzahi Hanegbi, then a student chairman at the university, as a bouncer [19] in the student club "Shablul" (lit. "snail") where he met his future wife. A year later, Lieberman was promoted to a general manager, responsible for all the activities at the club.[12] From 1983 to 1988, Lieberman helped found the Zionist Forum for Soviet Jewry, and was a member of the Board of the Jerusalem Economic Corporation and the Secretary of the Jerusalem branch of the Histadrut Ovdim Le'umit ("National Workers' Union"). In 1988, he started working with Benjamin Netanyahu. From 1993 to 1996, following Netanyahu's election as party leader, Lieberman served as Director-General of the Likud party. After Netanyahu was elected Prime Minister, Lieberman served as Director-General of the Prime Minister's Office from 1996 to 1997.[14]


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