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Aube (département)

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Aube (département)

For other uses, see Aube (disambiguation).

Aube
Department
Prefecture building of the Aube department, in Troyes

Coat of arms

Location of Aube in France

Coordinates: 48°20′N 4°10′E / 48.333°N 4.167°E / 48.333; 4.167Coordinates: 48°20′N 4°10′E / 48.333°N 4.167°E / 48.333; 4.167

Country France
Region Champagne-Ardenne
Prefecture Troyes
Subprefectures Bar-sur-Aube
Nogent-sur-Seine
Government
 • President of the General Council Philippe Adnot (DVD)
Area1
 • Total 6,004 km2 (2,318 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 303,327
 • Rank 75th
 • Density 51/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Department number 10
Arrondissements 3
Cantons 33
Communes 433
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Aube (French pronunciation: ​[ob]) is a French department in the Champagne-Ardennes region of north-eastern France named after the Aube River. In 1995, its population was 293,100 inhabitants.

The inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or Auboises[1]

With 303,298 inhabitants according to the census of 2009, Aube is 75th in terms of population at the national level and the 2nd largest on the regional level.

The department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790. As with sixty departments in France, it is named after the name of a river.

Geography

Location


The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Champagne-Ardenne region. It borders the departments of Marne in the north (about 130 km long), Haute-Marne to the east (about 100 km long), Côte-d'Or in the south-east (about 45 km long), Yonne in the south-west (about 175 km long), and Seine-et-Marne in the west (about 45 km long).[2]

Subregions or Aube "country"


Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows:

  • northwest quarter: Champagne crayeuse (chalky Champagne)
  • northwestern tip: the Nogentais
  • southwest of Troyes: the Othe region
  • to the south: le Chaourçois
  • to the northeast: the Briennois

to the east: the Barrois between Troyes and Barrois: Champagne wetlands

Communes of Aube

Aube is divided into 433 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants. Major cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are:

They are mostly located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes.

Topography and geology

Altitude of the Main Towns of Aube compared to other towns in the Champagne-Ardenne region[3]
Troyes Romilly-sur-Seine Bar-sur-Aube Nogent-sur-Seine Reims Charleville-Mézières
Lowest Altitude 100 metres 67 metres 156 metres 60 metres 74 metres 133 metres
Highest Altitude 126 metres 112 metres 348 metres 113 metres 137 metres 323 metres
Average Altitude 113 metres 90 metres 252 metres 87 metres 106 metres 228 metres
Town Hall Altitude 107 metres 77 metres 165 metres 71 metres 88 metres 152 metres

Hydrography


There are 23 rivers throughout the department,[Note 1] the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube (tributary of the Seine), the Armance (tributary of the Armançon), and the Vanne (a tributary of the Yonne).

Forests and Lakes


The department has 140,000 hectares of forests.[4]

Located in the Community of communes of Forests, lakes, and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France.

In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, and bathing are available. Each lake specialises in one or more of these activities.

Climate

The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic.

Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1°C[5] which is equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France. The average sunshine hours per year is 1771.

Average annual rainfall is quite high (653.4mm over 115 days of rain[5]). In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season when rainfall is lowest. There is, however, more rain in the south-east than the north-west.

Snow is relatively infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west.

City Sunshine Rain
Hrs/Yr mm/Yr
National Average 1973 770
Aube[6] 1817 646
Paris 1630 642
Nice 2668 767
Strasbourg 1633 610
Brest 1492 1109

Weather Data for Troyes

Climate data for Troyes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
7.5
(45.5)
11.6
(52.9)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
25.2
(77.4)
25.2
(77.4)
21.1
(70)
16.0
(60.8)
9.4
(48.9)
6.9
(44.4)
15.4
(59.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
3.5
(38.3)
7.0
(44.6)
9.5
(49.1)
13.5
(56.3)
16.5
(61.7)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
15.5
(59.9)
11.5
(52.7)
6.5
(43.7)
4.5
(40.1)
10.7
(51.3)
Average low °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.0
(35.6)
3.3
(37.9)
7.3
(45.1)
10.4
(50.7)
12.4
(54.3)
12.0
(53.6)
9.4
(48.9)
6.5
(43.7)
2.5
(36.5)
1.0
(33.8)
5.5
(41.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 51
(2.01)
42
(1.65)
48
(1.89)
51
(2.01)
62
(2.44)
57
(2.24)
54
(2.13)
52
(2.05)
53
(2.09)
64
(2.52)
51
(2.01)
61
(2.4)
646
(25.43)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 69 88 144 185 215 229 235 228 179 124 67 54 1,817
Source: Metereological data for Troyes-Barberey July 2013

Channels of communication and transport

Road Network

The department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads.[7]

Communal Transport

In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT (Transport for the Communes of Troyes) provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company.[8] The network currently serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network.[9]

Aube also has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev - The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes,[10] Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes,[11] Procars Champagne has 2 routes,[12] Autocars Bardy has one route.[13]

Rail network


Five railway stations are currently in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Troyes, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube.

Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube - the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse.

Navigable Waterways

The department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways[7]/>. The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain.[14]

Toponymy

Aube takes its name from the river.

History

Early History

The first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingons with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC.

Saints Potentian and Savinian,[15] Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses also suffered martyrdom. Nevertheless, as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land which forms Aube. Emperor Julian came to Troyes with his army and rescued it.

The territory making up Aube was first attached to France in 843, following the Treaty of Verdun.

The 12th century and the monasteries


Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other at Paraclete, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous.

The reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted absolutely the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy. The inhabitants, however, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable.

Definitive reunion with Kingdom of France

The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube. Its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot[16] and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and also MP.[16]

The 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business in the department.

After the victory of the allies in the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815, the department was occupied by Russian troops from June 1815 to November 1818.

In 1911 following the revolt of the vineyards of Champagne large Riots broke out in the department. The consequences of this were tragic because the clashes resulted in dozens of injuries.

Main article: Champagne Riots

In 1919, a decree allowed Aube department to produce champagne for the first time.[17]

In 1932 Turkish president Mustafa Kemal Ataturk visited Aube and signed a friendship treaty with France there on 4 July 1938.[18]

Heraldry

Blazon:
Azure, a band argent with two cotises potent and counter potent in Or, chief wavy in argent.




Politics and Administration

General Council

The General Council of Aube is located in Troyes. Its president has been DVD Senator Philippe Adnot since July 1990. It includes the 33 councillors of the 33 cantons of Aube. Of these, 26 are from the Right (mainly the UMP), the others are from the Socialist Party, the Communist Party and the Greens. Currently the budget of the General Council is €329.8 million. Its main mission and expenditure on social activities and health.[7]

Politics

Aube returns three Deputies to the National Assembly, all of whom are from the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), and two Senators: one UMP and one right-wing independent.

Seats on the General Council by Political Party
Party Abbrev. No. Members
Left Wing
Socialist Party PS 2
Communist Party PCF 2
Miscellaneous left DVG 1
Europe Ecology – The Greens EELV 1
Right Wing
Democratic Movement MoDem 1
New Centre NC 2
Miscellaneous right DVD 10
Union for a Popular Movement UMP 13
Independent
Independent SE 1
President of the General Council

Demography

Distribution of the population

Aube is inhabited by 308,503 people with more than a third (130,430 inhabitants[7]) live in the Troyes agglomeration.

Population of the Main towns of Aube[19]

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Demographic change

In 2009, the department had 303,298 inhabitants.

Histogram of Demographic Evolution

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Distribution of Age Groups

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aube compared to Champagne-Ardennes region in 2009

Aube Aube Ch-Ardennes Ch-Ardennes
Age Range Men Women Men Women
0 to 14 Years 19.0 17.3 19.1 17.2
15 to 29 Years 19.3 17.2 20.0 18.1
30 to 44 Years 20.6 19.5 20.7 19.7
45 to 59 Years 21.4 20.6 21.2 20.7
60 to 74 Years 13.0 14.1 12.7 13.6
75 to 89 Years 6.3 10.0 6.0 9.6
90 Years+ 0.4 1.3 0.3 1.1

Sources:

  • INSEE.
  • INSEE.

Breakdown of population by socio-professional categories

Population of 15 years or more by sex, age, and socio-professional category
socio-professionnel category 2007 1999 Details for 2007
Nb % Nb % Men Women %age of the population aged
15 to 24 yrs 25 to 54 yrs 55 yrs +
Ensemble 246,346 236,393 118,402 127,944
Farmers and Farm workers 5,094 2.1 5,408 2.3 3,584 1,510 0.2 3 1.6
Artisans, shopkeepers, business managers 7,232 2.9 7,619 3.2 5,025 2,207 0.5 4.7 1.5
Executives and Intellectuals 12,656 5.1 9,435 4 8,196 4,460 0.7 8.5 2.5
Intermediate Professions 28,805 11,7 24,953 10,6 14,020 14,786 6.6 19.7 3.1
Employees 40,276 16.3 35,303 14.9 8,782 31,493 16.4 25.5 4.2
Workers 43,950 17.8 47,771 20.2 33,297 10,653 19 27.8 4.1
Retirees 68,138 27.7 58,706 24.8 30,101 38,038 0 0.5 75.4
Others without occupation 40,194 16.3 47,198 20 15,397 24,797 56.6 10.2 7.6
Source : Population census of January 2006 (French)

Economy

General

The economy of Aube has focused on the textile industry since the 19th century. This sector is now in crisis due to the department being in an area of real economic change.

In 2007, the departmental workforce totalled 139,083 with 121,966 persons in employment and 17,117 people unemployed. Men accounted for nearly 53% of the active population and women 47%.[20]

The Aube department has a high rate of feminization in employment. Nearly half of people with active jobs (46% in 2007) are women. The main areas affected by the feminization are trade, transport, textiles, utilities, education, and health. Women are slightly more affected than men by unemployment (54.8% of the unemployed in 2007). This is mainly due to layoffs in the textile sector.

Employment by sector

Distribution of Employment by Industry sector

  Agriculture Industry Construction Commerce[Note 2] Public Administration[Note 3]
Aube 6.6% 20.3% 7.3% 37.4% 28.3%
Comparison with the Region 6.7% 19.2% 6.5% 36.7% 31.0%
Sources: Employment by sector of activity for 2007 in Champagne-Ardenne (French)

Main economic sectors

Industry

Large Industrial Companies[7]
No. of Employees
Petit Bateau (Textiles) 1,022
Devanlay (Textiles) 1,018
Soufflet (Cereals) 874
Kléber (Pneumatics) 790
Vachette (Locks) 600
Mefro Roues (Wheel rims) 584
Valco (Furniture) 575
Petitjean (Public lighting) 567
Jacquot (Chocolate) 550

Tourism

Accommodations[7]
No. Establishments
Hotels 66 1,991 rooms
Camping 23 1,618 places
Holiday Cottages 310 2,006 places

Agriculture


The utilized agricultural area is 379,720 hectares. Aube is largest producer of hemp; the 2nd largest producer of champagne, cabbage for sauerkraut, medicinal poppies, and alfalfa; the 6th largest producer of potatoes; the 8th largest producer of cereals; and the 9th largest producer of beet in France.[7]

Population and Society

Education


Primary and secondary

In 2010 elementary and secondary education consisted of:

  • 11,568 students in kindergarten across 136 schools (including 1 private);[21]
  • 18,465 students in primary school across 255 schools (including 14 private);[21]
  • 12,311 students in college across 34 institutions (including 9 private);[22]
  • 5,199 students in schools of general education across 10 institutions (including 3 private);[22]
  • 2,666 students in vocational high school across 10 institutions (including 3 private).[22]

Higher Education

According to the latest census of the academic inspectorate of Aube in 2009 the department has 8,794 students in higher education.[7][Note 4]

List of Universities and Higher Educational Schools

Public Schools

Private Schools

  • Graduate School of Commerce in Troyes
  • Supinfo

Health

List of Hospitals and Health Clinics[7]
Hospitals and Clinics
Type of Institution No. of Institutions
Hospital 4
Clinic 7
Children's Institutions
Type of Institution No. of Institutions
Child Protection 12
Handicapped Children's Centre 18
Institutions for Handicapped Adults
Type of Institution No. of Institutions
Institution to help for work 8
Businesses adapted for handicapped people 2
Professional rehabilitation Centres 1
Specialised Foster Homes 2
Accommodation Facilities 20
Residential Home Care for the autistic 2
Home Care 2
Institutions for the Elderly
Type of Institution No. of Institutions
Nursing Homes for the Elderly (EHPAD) 38
Home Housing 10
Long Term Care Units (USLD) 5
Group Homes 1
Home Care 7
Rural Homes for the Elderly 1

Sports


There are 580 clubs and sports associations in the Aube department.[23] The main ones are:

  • ES Troyes AC: soccer club in the French Ligue 1;
  • ETAC Handball: Handball Club at National Level 3;
  • Union Sportive de Sainte Maure Troyes Handball: Women's handball club at National Level 1;
  • Pygargues of Troyes: american football club in Division 2;
  • PLAVB (Troyes): volleyball club at Regional one;
  • SUMA (Troyes): Motoball club of France (one of the most successful) moved to elite since the 1930s;
  • 'Troyes roller hockey: roller hockey club playing at National Level 2;
  • Espadons (Swordfish )(Troyes): baseball club playing at Regional Level 1;
  • Romilly Association for Sports 10: which includes multiple sections.

Media

Radio

At Troyes there are three independent local radio stations:

  • Radio Latitude: that broadcasts programming focused on the dance floor. This was the first local radio station in the department. It broadcasts from Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, and Vendeuvre-sur-Barse
  • Theme Radio: community radio broadcasting music and information flashes
  • Troyes Campus radio: rock music oriented radio and sometimes rap

At Romilly-sur-Seine, in addition to Latitude Radio, there is a local independent radio broadcaster: Radio Aube et Seine.

French Christian Radio (RCF) Aube is located in the department.

Television

  • Canal 32: television network with a local Troyes and department station
  • France 3 Aube (France 3 Lorraine Champagne-Ardenne)

Daily Newspapers

Name Place Distribution Area Press Group Circulation[24]
L'Est-Éclair Saint-André-les-Vergers (agglomération de Troyes) Aube Groupe Hersant Média 27,948
Libération Champagne Troyes Aube Groupe Hersant Média 6,395

Justice

All Aube jurisdictions are located in Troyes. The city has a Tribunal d'instance and a High Court, a commercial court and an Employment Tribunal for civil and criminal jurisdictions. There is also a Correctional court and a Juvenile court.

Appeals, however, are passed to the Court of Appeal in Reims.[25]

Waste Management

Aube currently has two storage facilities for radioactive waste:

  • Storage Centre for Very Low Activity Waste (CSTFA)
  • Storage Centre for Low and Medium Activity Waste (CSFMA)

Culture and heritage

Cultural Venues

Theatres and concerts

  • The Cube - in the Parc des Expositions in Troyes
  • Champagne Theatre
  • Théâtre of la Madeleine
  • Argence space

Cinemas

The four main theatres are:

Cultural festivities

  • Festival in Othe
  • Aube Templiers 2012 event

Gastronomy

Monuments and tourist sites


The Aube has 365 historical monuments of which 144 are classified, and 221 are enrolled.[26]

Castles

Museums[27]

Other historic sites


Tourist Places

  • Orient Forest Regional Natural Park
  • Orient Lake
  • Amance and Temple Lakes
  • Nigloland: amusement park located at Dolancourt

Notable People linked to the Department

See also

External links

  • (French) Prefecture website
  • (English) General Council website
  • (English) DMOZ
  • (French) Official Tourism website for Troyes
  • Official website for Tourism for Aube (French)
  • Official website fo Tourism in Aube for Tablets and smartphones (French)
  • (French) of Aube Accounts for the Communes and groupings: - Individual Data Principle budget only - Consolidated data "Principle Budget and annexes" (French)
  • Departmental Archives
  • Official website of discovery for Aube (French)
  • Vitrail website for Aube (French)

Notes and references

Notes

References

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