Androdioecy is a reproductive system found in species composed of a male population and a distinct hermaphrodite population. Such species are rare.[1] In some species (such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) the hermaphrodite can mate with each other as well as with males, while in others (such as the clam shrimp Eulimnadia texana) they can only self-fertilize or mate with the male population.

The conditions required for androdioecy to arise and sustain itself are theoretically so improbable that it was long considered that such systems would never be found.[2] However, androdioecy (and near-androdioecy) has now been documented in both phylogenetically distinct plant and animal species. Hence androdioecy has actually evolved independently several times.

Androdioecious species

See also


External links

  • Kiyoshi Ishida and Tsutom Hiura. (Oleaceae), in Hokkaido, Japan'. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159 (1998): 941–947.
  • Elizabeth Pennisi. 'Sex and the Single Killifish'. Science 313 (2006)


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