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Aghlabids

Aghlabid dynasty
Banū al-Aghlab (بنو الأغلب)
Semi-independent emirate, nominally vassal or subject of the Abbasid, but de facto independent since 801.[1][2][3]

800–909
Capital Kairouan then El Abbasiyya
Languages Arabic, African Romance, Berber languages
Religion Sunni Islam Malekism, Catholic Church, Judaism
Political structure Semi-independent emirate, nominally vassal or subject of the Abbasid, but de facto independent since 801.[4][5][6]
President
 •  800-812 Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab ibn Salim
 •  903-909 Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdallah
History
 •  Established 800
 •  Fatimid overthrown 909
 •  Disestablished 909
Currency Aghlabid Dinar[7]
Today part of  Algeria
 Tunisia
 Libya
 Italy
An Aghlabid cistern in Kairouan
Gold dinar of Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab (184-196 AH), anonymous (but dynastic motto 'Ghalab' on the reverse), no mint name (probably Kairouan, Ifriqiya). Struck in 192 AH (807/808 AD). Preserved at the Musée national d'art islamique de Raqqada.

The Aghlabids (Arabic: الأغالبة‎) were an Arab[8] dynasty of emirs, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Decline of the Aghlabids 1.1
  • Aghlabid rulers 2
  • See also 3
  • Citations 4
  • References 5

History

In 800, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, son of a Khurasanian Arab commander from the Banu Tamim tribe,[9] as hereditary Emir of Ifriqiya as a response to the anarchy that had reigned in that province following the fall of the Muhallabids. He was to control an area that encompassed eastern Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania.[10] Although independent in all but name, his dynasty never ceased to recognise Abbasid overlordship.

One unique feature about Aghlabids that It is recorded that despite the political difference and rivalry between Aghlabids who served under Abbasid and the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba. The Muslims in Spain was also sent a fleet under Asba' ibn Wakil to aid the Aghlabids conquest of Sicily. Ibn Kathir recorded that 300 ships totals of Umayyad and Aghlabids joint forces were present[11]

A new capital, al-Abbasiyya, was founded outside Kairouan, partly to escape the opposition of the Malikite jurists and theologians, who condemned what they saw as the godless life of the Aghlabids, and disliked the unequal treatment of the Muslim Berbers. Additionally, border defenses (Ribat) were set up in Sousse and Monastir. The Aghlabids also built up the irrigation of the area and enhanced the public buildings and mosques.[10]

Under Ziyadat Allah I (817-838) came the crisis of a revolt of Arab troops in 824, which was not quelled until 836 with the help of the Berbers. The conquest of Byzantine Sicily from 827 under Asad ibn al-Furat was an attempt to keep the unruly troops under control - it was only achieved slowly, and only in 902 was the last Byzantine outpost taken. Plundering raids into mainland Italy, which included the sack of the Roman basilicas in 846,[12] took place until well into the 10th century. Gradually the Aghlabids lost control of the Arab forces in Sicily and a new dynasty, the Kalbids, emerged there.

The Aghlabid kingdom reached its high point under Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi (856-863). Ifriqiya was a significant economic power thanks to its fertile agriculture, aided by the expansion of the Roman irrigation system. It became the focal point of trade between the Islamic world and Byzantium and Italy, especially the lucrative slave trade. Kairuan became the most important centre of learning in the Maghreb, most notably in the field of Theology and Law, and a gathering place for poets. The Aghlabid Emirs also sponsored building projects, notably the rebuilding of the Mosque of Uqba and the kingdom developed an architectural style which combined Abbasid architecture and Byzantine architecture.[13]

Decline of the Aghlabids

The decline of the dynasty began under Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad (875-902). An attack by the Tulunids of Egypt had to be repelled and a revolt of the Berbers put down with much loss of life. In addition, in 893 there began amongst the Kutama Berbers the movement of the Shiite Fatimids to overthrow the Aghlabids. Ubaydalla Said captured the cities of Qairawan and Raqqada and took an oath of allegiance from the people. By 909, the Aghlabid Dynasty was overthrown and replaced with the Fatimids.[14]

Aghlabid rulers

See also

Citations

  1. ^ Historical Dictionary of Algeria - Phillip C. Naylor
  2. ^ Libya. Ediz. Inglese - Anthony Ham
  3. ^ Islam: An Illustrated History - Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville,Stuart Christopher Munro-Hay [1]
  4. ^ Historical Dictionary of Algeria - Phillip C. Naylor
  5. ^ Libya. Ediz. Inglese - Anthony Ham
  6. ^ Islam: An Illustrated History - Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville,Stuart Christopher Munro-Hay [2]
  7. ^ Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades: Proceedings of a Workshop - John H. Pryor, p187 [3]
  8. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 31.
  9. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 31.
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^
  12. ^ Barbara M. Kreutz, Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 57.
  13. ^
  14. ^

References

  • Georges Marçais, "Aghlabids," Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Vol. I, pp. 699–700.
  • Mohamed Talbi, Emirat Aghlabide, Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1967.
  • Madeleine Vonderheyden, La Berbérie orientale sous la dynastie des Benoû l-Aṛlab, 800-909, Paris: Geuthner, 1927.
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