World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

African Union Mission to Somalia

Article Id: WHEBN0007003026
Reproduction Date:

Title: African Union Mission to Somalia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: September 2012, Somali Civil War, Djibouti Armed Forces, Al-Shabaab (militant group), July 2010
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

African Union Mission to Somalia

African Union Mission in Somalia
Participant in the Somali Civil War
Map of Somalia within the African Union
Active February 2007 – present
Leaders Lieutenant General Andrew Gutti
Major General Cyprien Hakiza
Headquarters Mogadishu
Area of operations Central and southern Somalia
Originated as IGASOM

Federal Government of Somalia

Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a
Raskamboni movement

ARS (dis)
Hizbul Islam (dis)


The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) is an active, regional peacekeeping mission operated by the African Union with the approval of the United Nations in Somalia. It is mandated to support transitional governmental structures, implement a national security plan, train the Somali security forces, and to assist in creating a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid.[1] As part of its duties, AMISOM also supports the Federal Government of Somalia's forces in their battle against Al-Shabaab militants.

AMISOM was created by the African Union's Peace and Security Council on 19 January 2007 with an initial six-month mandate.[2] On 21 February 2007 the United Nations Security Council approved the mission's mandate.[3] Subsequent six-monthly renewals of AMISOM's mandate by the African Union Peace and Security Council have also been authorised by the United Nations Security Council.[4][5]

AMISOM's UN mandate was extended for an additional six months in August 2008 by UNSCR 1831.[6][7] AMISOM’s mandate has been extended each period that it has been up for review. It is currently set to be reviewed again on 28 February 2014, following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093.[8]

In August 2014, the Somali government assisted by AMISOM launched Operation Indian Ocean to cleanup the remaining Al-Shabaab-held pockets in the countryside.[9]

Origin of the mission

Burundian troops preparing to deploy to Somalia, 2006

AMISOM replaced and subsumed the IGAD Peace Support Mission in Somalia (IGASOM), which was a proposed Intergovernmental Authority on Development protection and training mission to Somalia approved by the African Union on September 14, 2006.[10] IGASOM was also approved by the United Nations Security Council on December 6, 2006.[11]

IGASOM was originally proposed for immediate implementation in March 2005 to provide peacekeeping forces for the latest phase of the Somali Civil War.[12]

At that time, the Nairobi, Kenya in 2004 and were planning to established a provisional capital in Baidoa, Bay region, Somalia.

By May 2006, the situation was radically different, as the ICU had recently been engaged by the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism or ARPCT and was fighting for control of Mogadishu in the Second Battle of Mogadishu. By June, they had established control of the capital. Fighting began to spread to other parts of the nation as the ICU gained ground.

Plans for IGASOM continued, though by July there were indications of opposition from the ICU, who saw the initiative as a US-backed, Western means to curb the growth of their Islamic movement.[13]

Until December 2006, the UN Security Council had imposed an arms embargo on the group,[14] but the embargo was partially lifted and a mandate for IGASOM issued on 6 December 2006 for six months.[15]

On 21 February 2007, the United Nations Security Council authorised the African Union to deploy a peacekeeping mission with a mandate of six months.[3] In March 2007, Ugandan military officials arrived on the ground in Somalia.[16] On 20 August 2007, the United Nations Security Council extended the African Union's authorisation to continue deploying AMISOM for a further six months and requested the Secretary-General to explore the option of replacing AMISOM with a United Nations Peacekeeping Operation to Somalia.[4]

Mission planning

Scope of the mission

An American officer inspecting troops from Sierra Leone prior to deployment to Somalia, 2012

IGASOM was expected to eventually reach 8,000 troops, with an expected cost of $335 million for the first year. According to UN Security Council Resolution 1725, states bordering Somalia would not be eligible to deploy troops under IGASOM. The remaining (non-bordering) IGAD member nations include Sudan, Eritrea, and Uganda. Because of the objection of the burden falling on these three nations alone (and the rivalry between Ethiopia and Eritrea), the mission was expanded to include other Member States of the African Union .

AMISOM has a different composition. As proposed, it is to comprise an initial 3 battalions, growing to a total of 9 battalions of 850 troops each, which would serve for an initial stabilization period of 6 months. The mission was to be modelled after the African Union Mission in Burundi (AMIB).[2]

ICU resistance

As early as March 25, 2005 Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys of the Union of Islamic Courts warned any peacekeepers would be unwelcome in the country. He was quoted by the BBC as saying, "We will fight fiercely to the death any intervention force that arrives in Somalia."[17] Yet at the time, the ICU was not the political or military force it was to become later.

Faced with the ascendancy of the ICU after taking over the capital in the Second Battle of Mogadishu between May and June, 2006, UN-watchers were growing concerned with the level of hostility of the ICU towards the proposed IGASOM mission.[13]

Though IGAD and the ICU met and published a cordial and formal communique[18] committing the ICU to the IGAD plans on December 2, by the time United Nations Security Council Resolution 1725 was passed on December 6,[11] the ICU was openly and militantly opposed to peacekeepers entering Somalia, and vowed to treat any peacekeepers as hostile forces. Because of regional divisions, there were also UIC resistance to allowing Ethiopian troops be part of the mission. Ethiopia, for its part, was leery of allowing Eritrean troops to be members of the IGAD peacekeeping force.

In the face of ICU threats, Uganda, the only IGAD members who had openly offered to send forces (a battalion), withdrew in the face of concerns of the present feasibility of the mission.[19][20][21] In Uganda's defense, the crisis does not allow for peacekeepers when there are active hostilities conducted with heavy weapons (see Battle of Baidoa).

On December 23, 2006, the fate and feasibility of IGASOM remained uncertain, though US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice met with Ugandan Foreign Minister Sam Kutesa to obtain assurances and emphasize plans to deploy IGASOM early in 2007.[22]

On January 1, 2007, after the defeat of the ICU in various battles in December 2006, Uganda again renewed its pledge of a battalion of troops. Between Uganda and Nigeria (which is a Member State of the African Union, but not of IGAD), there was a pledge of a total of 8,000 peacekeepers.[23] Malawi also pledged to send forces,[24] while Ghana, Rwanda and Tanzania may do so.[25]

Gathering support

Burundian soldiers training before deployment to Somalia, 2012

Following the defeat of the Islamic Courts Union in December 2006 – January 2007 the international community began to gather both fiscal commitments as well as military forces for the mission. Nations of the African Union (AU) outside the IGAD community were drawn on to provide support.

On January 17, 2007, the US ambassador to Kenya, Michael Ranneberger, said the US pledged $40 million to support the deployment of a peacekeeping force for Somalia.[26] By January 20, the European Union followed with a pledge of 15 million euros.[27]

On January 19, 2007 the mission was formally defined and approved by the African Union at the 69th meeting of the Peace and Security Council.[2]

On January 22, 2007 Malawi agreed to send a half-battalion to a battalion (ranging widely anywhere between approximately 400 to 1,200 troops) for a peacekeeping mission to Somalia.[28]

On January 24, 2007 Nigeria pledged a battalion (a force between 770 and 1,100 troops) to join the Somali peacekeeping mission.[29]

On February 1, 2007 Burundi committed to the peacekeeping mission, pledging up to 1,000 troops.[30] By March 27, it was confirmed that 1700 Burundian peacekeepers would be sent to Somalia.[31]

On February 2, 2007, the United Nations Security Council welcomed the advent of the African Union and IGAD-led peacekeeping mission.[32]

On February 5, 2007 Tanzania offered to train Somali government troops, but not to deploy peacekeepers.[33]

On February 9, 2007 a gathering of 800 Somali demonstrators in north Mogadishu, where Islamist support was strongest, burned U.S., Ethiopian, and Ugandan flags in protest of the proposed peacekeeping mission. A masked representative of the resistance group, the Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations, said Ethiopian troops would be attacked in their hotels; the same group had made a video warning peacekeepers to avoid coming to Somalia.[34] By this date, Uganda, Nigeria, Ghana, Malawi and Burundi had committed to the peacekeeping mission, but the total force was about half of the proposed 8,000-strong force.[35] Uganda had pledged 1,400 troops and some armored vehicles for a mission lasting up to 9 months, and the AU had pledged $11.6 million.[36]

On February 16, 2007 Uganda announced it would deploy 1,500 well-seasoned troops as early as Saturday, February 17, 2007 under the command of Major General Levi Karuhanga. The troops had been training for two years in preparation for the mission.[37]

The Burundian troops were technically ready to go in early August 2007, but equipment promised by the United States and France had not yet arrived.[38] On December 23, 2007, an advance force of 100 Burundians was deployed[39] and another 100 soldiers arrived on 2007-12-24.[40] By late 2008, 1,700 Burundian soldiers were deployed to Mogadishu.[41]

Expanding role

In a closed door meeting in Kampala on 22 July 2010, AU ministers agreed to expand the mission's mandate from a peacekeeping focus to a peace-enforcement focus that would engage al-Shabaab more directly. The decision came soon after deadly bomb attacks in the Ugandan capital.[42] A few days later in response to UN pressure, the AU agreed not to expand the mandate but did allow preemptive strikes against Al-Shabaab and promised more troops from other African countries.[43]

On July 23, 2010, Djibouti and Guinea pledged troops to AMISOM.[44] On 17 September 2010, an AU envoy said in Nairobi that AMISOM's size had grown from 6,300 to 7,200 troops after an additional battalion from Uganda joined the force.[45] In December 2010, the UN backed AMISOM in increasing the mission's authorised size to 12,000, and at the same time reports indicated that Uganda had promised an extra 1,800 personnel, with Burundi an extra 850.[46]

In March 2011 Burundi sent 1,000 extra soldiers to AMISOM, bringing the total number of Burundi troops deployed to 4,400.[47] AFP, reported in Africa Research Bulletin, said Burundian military chief General Godefroid Niyombare said on 14 March 2011 the soldiers had been deployed a week before.[48]

In February 2012, the U.N. Security Council boosted the amount of troops deployed from 12,000 to 17,731. The approval comes after a series of recent successes against al-Shabaab fighters who had previous positions throughout the central and southern areas of the country.[49] During the same month, AU Commander Fred Mugisha suggested that Al-Shabaab was "at [its] weakest" and would likely "implode in the not so distant future" owing to successive military defeats that it suffered as well as an exodus toward the Arabian Peninsula of hundreds of the group's fighters.[50]

Due to the successful military operations against the Islamists, the United States has also been stepping up efforts to train and equip the AMISOM troops in a bid to stamp out the Al-Shabaab insurgency and limit its influence.[51]

In October 2011, a coordinated operation between the Somali military and the Kenyan military began against the Al-Shabaab group of militants in southern Somalia.[52][53] The mission is officially being led by the Somali army, with the Kenyan forces providing a support role.[53] On 12 November, the Kenyan government agreed to rehat its forces under AMISOM command,[54] and later announced in March 2012 that it would be sending 5,000 troops to join the coalition. Analysts expect the additional AU troop reinforcements to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.[54]

The East African reported in March 2012 on reorganisation of AMISOM's headquarters and sector commands. Personnel (J1) would be led by the AU, with Kenya taking responsibility for intelligence (J2) and logistics (J4), Uganda operations (J3) and engineer (J8), Burundi plans (J5) and communications/IS (J6), Sierra Leone training (J7), and Djibouti CIMIC (J9). There would also be four sectors: Uganda responsible for Sector One (the Shabelles and Banadir), Sector Two (the Jubbas) run by Kenya, Sector Three Burundi covering GEdo, Bay, and BAkool, and Sector from which Ethiopia forces were withdrawing from to be directed by Djibouti.[55]

Following the Westgate shooting in Nairobi by Al Shabaab operatives, the Ethiopian government halted its plans to withdraw completely out of Somalia. It instead indicated that it would continue to support the Somali armed forces and their AMISOM allies.[56] In November 2013, the Ethiopian government announced that it would integrate its troops that are deployed in Somalia into the AMISOM multinational force. Somalia's Foreign Minister Fowzia Haji Yussuf welcomed the decision, stating that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against the insurgent group. She also emphasized the importance of collaboration between Somalia and Ethiopia.[57] The Ethiopian authorities' announcement came a month after a failed October bombing attempt by Al-Shabaab in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa, and a week after Ethiopia received a renewed terrorism threat from the insurgent group.[58] According to Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Ambassador Dina Mufti, the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM is intended to render the peacekeeping operation more secure.[59] Analysts also suggested that the move was primarily motivated by financial considerations, with the Ethiopian forces' operational costs now slated to be under AMISOM's allowance budget. It is believed that the Ethiopian military's long experience in Somali territory, its equipment such as helicopters, and the potential for closer coordination will help the allied forces advance their territorial gains.[60] On the other hand, there is a certain amount of unease following Ethiopia's entry into AMISOM given local animosity originating from Ethiopia's heavy handed intervention in 2006. There are also fears that Al Shabaab could use Somali animosity towards Ethiopia as a rallying cry and to recruit more members.[61]

In December 2013, the U.S. government established a military coordination cell in Mogadishu at the request of AMISOM and the Somali government. The unit consists of a small team of fewer than five advisers, including planners and communicators between AMISOM and the Somali authorities. It is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces in order to enhance their capacity and to promote peace and security throughout the country and wider region.[62]


Ugandan troops training, 2012

Military Commanders

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 General Levi Karuhanga  Uganda 14 February 2007 3 March 2008
2 Major General Francis Okello  Uganda 3 March 2008 7 July 2009
3 Major General Nathan Mugisha[63]  Uganda 7 July 2009 15 June 2011[64]
4 Major General Fredrick Mugisha  Uganda 15 June 2011[64][65] 2 May 2012 [66]
5 Lieutenant General Andrew Gutti[63]  Uganda 2 May 2012 Dec 2013
6 Lieutenant General Silas Ntigurirwa[67]  Burundi Dec 2013 Incumbent

Deputy commanders

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Major General Juvenal Niyoyunguruza  Burundi 2008 17 September 2009 KIA
2 Major General Cyprien Hakiza  Burundi September 2009 April 2010
3 Major General Maurice Gateretse  Burundi April 2010 June 2010
4 Major General Audace Nduwumunsi  Burundi June 2010
5 Major General Harushimana  Burundi
6 Major General Francis Kimeu Nthenge[68]  Kenya Incumbent alongside Gen. Muheesi
7 Major General Geofrey Baraba Muheesi  Uganda Incumbent alongside Gen. Nthenge


No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Captain Paddy Akunda[63]  Uganda March 2007 2008
2 Major Barigye Bohuko[69]  Uganda 2008 3 May 2011
3 Lt. Colonel Paddy Akunda[70][71]  Uganda 3 May 2011 8 Jul 2012
4 Colonel Ali Houmed  Djibouti 8 Jul 2012 Incumbent

Contingent commanders

UPDF contingent

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Colonel Peter Elwelu[67]  Uganda
2 Colonel Mikael Ondoga[63]  Uganda 3 May 2011
3 Colonel Paul Lokech[63]  Uganda 3 May 2011 23 Sep 2013
4 Brigadier Deus Sande[72]  Uganda 23 Sep 2013 25 Sep 2013
5 Brigadier Dick Olum[72]  Uganda 25 Sep 2013 Incumbent

BNDF contingent

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Major General Prime Niyongabo[67]  Burundi Jun 2009 Jun 2010
2 Brigadier General Maurice Gateretse[67]  Burundi Jun 2010 Jun 2011
3 Colonel Jean Luc Habarugira[67]  Burundi Jun 2011 Incumbent

ENDF contingent

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Brigadier General Gebremedhin Fikadu Hailu[73]  Ethiopia Jan 2014 Incubent

KDF contingent

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Brigadier General Walter Koipaton Raria[74]  Kenya Incubent

DJAF contingent

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Colonel Osman Doubad[75]  Djibouti Incubent

RSLAF contingent

No. Name Country Took command Left command Note
1 Lieutenant colonel Abubakar Conteh[76]  Sierra Leone Incubent

Civil staff

The civilian staff of AMISOM has been operating from Nairobi, Kenya since 2008 due to the security situation in Mogadishu, Somalia.[77] As of now, they number approximately 81 personnel.

Since the beginning of 2011 AMISOM and TFG has taken control over several strategic places in Mogadishu after several offensives against Al-Shabaab.

With the expanded control over the capital AMISOM on 16 May 2011 moved the civil staff and police officers to Mogadishu. This includes Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia (SRCC) Ambassador Boubacar Gaoussou Diarra and deputy (SRCC) Honourable Wafula Wamunyinyi.[77]

Much of the key logistical support for the force is provided by the United Nations Support Office for AMISOM (UNSOA), a field mission of the UN Secretariat Department of Field Support.

The Civilian component is supervised by the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia (SRCC) which is represented on the ground by Ambassador Mahamat Saleh Annadif. who oversees the Political, Civil, Humanitarian, Gender and Public Information departments.

Ambassador Epiphanie Kabushemeye-Ntamwana is the civilian Chief of Staff.

The Chief Administrative Officer Timothy Kiguti heads the support component of the mission which includes administration personnel, finance and budgeting, logistics and procurement among other issues.

The Police contingent, which takes care of civilian security matters rather than frontline peacekeeping, is headed by the Acting AMISOM Police Commissioner Mr Benson Oyo-Nyeko.

Training for contingents

The United States has provided extensive training for contingents headed for Somalia. In the first half of 2012, Force Recon Marines from Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force 12 (SPMAGTF-12) trained soldiers from the Uganda People's Defence Force.[78] In the northern spring of 2012 [March–April–May], Marines from SPMAGTF-12 also trained Burundian soldiers. In April and May, members of Task Force Raptor, 3rd Squadron, 124th Cavalry Regiment of the Texas Army National Guard, took part in a separate training mission with the BNDF in Mudubugu, Burundi. SPMAGTF-12 has also sent its trainers to Djibouti, another nation involved in the Somali mission, to work with an army unit there.

At the same time, U.S. troops have assisted in training the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces in preparation for their deployment to Somalia later this year. In June 2012, U.S. Army Africa commander Major General David R. Hogg spoke encouragingly of the future of Sierra Leone's forces in conjunction with Kenya.[79] As of June 2012, the RSLAF troops have not yet deployed; the Sierra Leonean defence minister said on June 23, 2012, that the battalion might depart for the Horn 'some time in September [2012].'[80]

In addition, a significant amount of support to AMISOM has been provided by private companies. "Bancroft Global Development, headquartered on Washington's Embassy Row, employs about 40 South African and European trainers who work with [AMISOM's] Ugandan and Burundian troops.[81] Bancroft director Michael Stock told The EastAfrican that these mentors are embedded with AMISOM units in Mogadishu and southern and central Somalia. They coach commanders on to predict and defeat the tactics which foreign fighters bring from outside East Africa and teach to al-Shabaab." Bancroft "does not receive funding directly from the US government but is instead paid by AMISOM, which is then reimbursed by the State Department for these outlays." The Associated Press reports that Bancroft has been paid $12.5 million for its work in Somalia since 2008.

A security analyst in Somalia listed three primary private security companies/private military companies operating in Mogadishu.[82] DynCorp, who provide logistical support in the Somali capital; Bancroft International, who provide training to TFG and AMISOM personnel, as well as assisting with community service delivery; and Pacific Architects & Engineers.


Troop numbers

Country Armed personnel (current) Casualties
Troops police Killed Missing or captured
Uganda People's Defence Force 6,223 201[83] 83[84][85]-2,700+[86]
Burundi National Defence Force 5,432[87] 417+[84][85][88] 4 missing,[89] 1 captured[90]
Ethiopian National Defense Force 4,395[91] 2+ (supposedly)[92]
Kenya Defence Forces 3,664[93] 48[94] 36-154+[95][96]
Djibouti Armed Forces 1,000[97] 8+[98][99][100]
Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces 850 47[101]
Nigeria Police Force 200[102]
Ghana Police Service 56[103]
Total 21,500+ 550+ 539[88][98]-3,000+[104] 5
* The total number of personnel under AMISOM (including armed personnel and civil staff) is reportedly around 22,126.[105]
* Before joining AMISOM in January 2014, the Ethiopian Defense Force was believed to have an estimated 8,000 troops in the country.[106]
* Likewise, Kenya had troops deployed in Somalia independently before they were brought under the AMISOM umbrella
* Cameroon, Mali, Senegal, and Zambia were known to have a total of four personnel inserted into AMISOM. However, it is not known whether they were security or civil personnel.[47][107]
* Furthermore, there are also a small number of police officers from Burundi, Gambia, and Zimbabwe that are inserted into AMISOM[108]

Casualties and Injuries


  • March 7, 2007 – Two Ugandan soldiers were wounded in an ambush in Mogadishu.[109]
  • March 31, 2007 – A mortar attack in Mogadishu killed one and wounded five Ugandan soldiers.[110]
  • May 16, 2007 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and five wounded by a roadside bomb when their convoy was attacked in Mogadishu.[111]
  • August 1, 2007 – Two Ugandan soldiers were wounded when their convoy was ambushed en route to a hotel where AMISOM Major General Levi Karuhanga was staying.[112]
  • October 23, 2007 – A mortar attack in Mogadishu wounded three Ugandan soldiers.[113]
  • October 24, 2007 – One Ugandan soldier was wounded in a grenade attack on the AU base at the Km4 intersection in Mogadishu.[114]


  • April 8, 2008 – One Burundian soldier was killed and another wounded in a suicide car bomb attack on an AU base in Mogadishu.[115][116][117]
  • May 20, 2008 – Five Ugandan soldiers were wounded in fighting in Mogadishu.[118]
  • August 1, 2008 – A Ugandan soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[119]
  • September 14, 2008 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and two wounded when their convoy, inspecting for mines in Mogadishu, was ambushed.[120]
  • September 15, 2008 – One Ugandan soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[121][122]
  • October 14, 2008 – Two Burundian soldiers were wounded by a roadside bomb near Mogadishu airport.[41]
  • December 3, 2008 – One Burundian soldier was killed in an attack on an AU base in Mogadishu.[123]


  • January 6, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and one wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[124]
  • February 3, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[125]
  • February 22, 2009 – 11 Burundian soldiers were killed and 15 wounded in a double suicide attack on their base in Mogadishu.
  • March 18, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and two wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[126]
  • April 9, 2009 – One Burundian soldier died after a suicide attack the day before.[127]
  • May 6, 2009 – One Burundian soldier was killed in an ambush in Mogadishu.[128]
  • June 18, 2009 – One Ugandan soldier was killed and one was wounded by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[129]
  • July 12, 2009 – Three Ugandan soldiers were killed and one was wounded in a mortar attack on the presidential palace in Mogadishu.[130]
  • July 23 – One Ugandan soldier was killed in fighting at the Villa Somalia in Mogadishu.[131]
  • July 23–29, 2009 – An epidemic of Leptospirosis hit the Burundian and Ugandan military camps in Mogadishu killing three Burundian and two Ugandan soldiers. Another 18 Burundian soldiers were placed in quarantine. About 50 Burundian and 17 Ugandan soldiers were evacuated for medical treatment to Nairobi, Kenya.[132][133]
  • September 17, 2009 – 17 soldiers were killed and 29 wounded in a suicide attack by Islamist rebels on the headquarters of the African Union force in Mogadishu. At least four civilians were also killed and more than 10 wounded. 12 of those killed were Burundian soldiers and five were Ugandan. Among the dead was the AMISOM deputy commander Maj. Gen. Juvenal Niyonguruza, from Burundi. Also, one of the wounded was AMISOM commander Gen. Nathan Mugisha, from Uganda.[134]
  • November 15, 2009 – A spokesman for the Burundian forces stated that mortars landed inside the Amisom base, injuring two soldiers.[135]


  • April 27 – A suicide car bomb detonated against an Amisom base injured two Ugandan soldiers. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility.[136]
  • May 20 – One Ugandan soldier was killed by a roadside bomb in Mogadishu.[137]
  • June 3 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed and five were wounded in fighting in Mogadishu.[138]
  • July 4 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed and three were wounded in fighting in Mogadishu.[139]
  • July 23 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed when their base at the presidential palace was attacked in Mogadishu.[140]
  • August 4 – The Ugandan army confirmed that since the start of the mission 26 of their soldiers have been killed and 68 injured.[141]
  • August 30 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and eight wounded in a mortar attack conducted by the al-Shabab militia on the Somali presidential palace.[142]
  • September 9 – Two Ugandan soldiers were killed when suicide bombers attacked Mogadishu's airport.[143]
  • September 16 – Three Ugandan soldiers were wounded while re-taking a police station from insurgents in Mogadishu.[144]
  • September 24 – A Ugandan soldier was killed and two wounded in fighting in Mogadishu in the area of the parliament.[145]
  • October 25 – An attack against a base of AMISOM by Al-Shabab had killed one soldier and injured several among the Ugandan forces.[146][147]
  • October 30 – A bomb against the Jalle Siad military camp in Mogadishu killed 3 Burundian soldiers and injured four.[148]
  • November 1 – Al Shabaab attack a convoy of AMISOM, left at least seven people dead and three others wounded, including AMISOM forces.[149]
  • November 17 – Two soldiers were wounded in an ambush against their convoy in Mogadishu.[150]
  • December 2 – Five AMISOM soldiers were lightly wounded during a battle with the forces of Al-Shabab.[151]


  • January 10 – A Burundian peacekeeper was killed in Mogadishu by al-Shabaab insurgents.[152]
  • February 23–March 4 – 53-82 AU troops were killed in clashes with al-Shabab fighters during an offensive in Mogadishu, 190 other AMISOM troops were also wounded.[153][154] In addition, a Burundian soldier was captured alive by militants.[90] These were, at the time, certainly the heaviest losses since AMISOM deployed. 43 of those killed were confirmed as Burundian soldiers and 10 as Ugandans.[153] Also, 110 of the wounded were Burundians. Beside the 43 killed in action, four Burundian soldiers were declared missing in action.[89]
  • March 5 – A Burundian soldier was injured by the controlled explosion of a car bomb of al-Shabab militants.[155] AMISOM forces won back the rebel-controlled town of Bulo Hawo with the help of forces loyal to the Somali government.[156]
  • March 17 – Six AU soldiers were killed in heavy clashes between Somali government troops backed by AMISOM in Mogadishu and al-Shabab militants.[157]
  • May 12–June 11 – 12 AU soldiers were killed (including 7 Ugandans) and 13+ injured during the Bakaara market offensive in Mogadishu.
  • July 29 – Four Ugandan soldiers were killed and five others wounded during clashes in Mogadishu. An AMISOM tank was also destroyed.[158][159][160]
  • August 1 – At least two AMISOM soldiers were killed and others wounded in a suicide attack on an AMISOM base in Mogadishu.[161]
  • October 10 – One AMISOM soldier was killed and six injured in an operation in North East of Mogadishu. The former Pasta Factory and critical junction, Ex Control Bal’ad, are after that in Government hands.[162]
  • October 20 – At least 70 Burundian soldiers were killed and their bodies filmed and paraded by Al-Shabaab following the battle of Deynile, Mogadishu.[163][164] An unknown number of soldiers were wounded. One AU armoured vehicle was also destroyed in the fighting.[165][166]
  • October 23 – Two AU soldiers were wounded when a suicide bomber blew himself up near a convoy of AU peacekeepers in Mogadishu.[167]
  • October 29 - Al-Shabab militants have attacked an AMISOM compound injuring 2 AU soldiers in the Somali capital Mogadishu.[168]
  • December 25 - A Burundian soldier was killed by a landmine bomb and 2 others were wounded in Mogadishu.[169]


  • January 14 - A Ugandan soldier was killed by a Somali soldier in Mogadishu. The reasons for the act are unknown.[170]
  • January 20 - Two AU soldiers were injured in a military offensive to consolidate security in Mogadishu.[171]
  • March 2 - Two Ugandan soldiers were injured during the capture of the city of Maslah.[172]
  • March 29 - Four Burundian soldiers were wounded in a battle on Daynile District on Mogadishu.[173]
  • August 31 - 5 Kenyan soldiers were missing after the capture of Miido. A search and rescue was mounted. Three other soldiers were injured.[174] Three of the soldiers were found alive two days later, but the fate of the other two soldiers remained unknown.[175] A few days later, their bodies were shown in a video posted by the insurgents.[176]
  • September 19 - Two AMISOM troops were injured during the capture of Janaa Cabdalla town located 50 kilometres to the west of the port city of Kismayo in the Lower Jubba region.[177]
  • October 24 - Four Ugandan soldiers were killed by a bomb while advancing towards Baidoa.[84]
  • October 29 - 3-4 Ugandan soldiers were killed and seven wounded in an attack by two suicide bombers on an AMISOM base in Mogadishu.[178]
  • November 19- At least two Kenyan soldiers who are part of the African Union(AU) peacekeeping force in Somalia were killed in Garissa, a base for security forces in Kenya fighting insurgents in neighbouring Somalia, Kenya's army spokesman said on Monday.[179]


  • March 11, 2014 - At least 2 AMISOM peacekeepers are injured as AMISOM and Somali troops advanced into areas close to coastal town of Barawe and Qoryoley.[180]
  • March 18, 2014 - At least three Dijiboutian soldiers were killed in a hotel attack on the town of Bulo-burde.[181]
  • April 5, 2014 - During joint AMISOM-Somali incursion to liberate the town of Wabxo, Al Shabaab fighters claimed to have killed Ethiopian troops from AMISOM and posted photos on social media showing fighters posing over two unidentified bodies in uniform with AMISOM patches, Ethiopian script, helmets, and various weapons.[182]
  • May 24, 2014 - Three Ugandan peacekeepers died in an attack by thirteen Al Shabaab militants on the Somali Parliament alongside four Somali soldiers and a police officer. In addition, four Ugandans were wounded but in stable condition. The attack started with a car bomb driven into the parliament building's entrance and ended with eleven of the attackers killed while the other two detonated suicide bombs.[183]
  • May 26, 2014: Two Kenyan soldiers in a supply convoy were killed in an ambush by suspected Al Shabaab militants near the town of Lamu in an area close to the Ras Kamboni region. Kenyan officials confirm that some other Kenyan soldiers were wounded while one militant was killed. They also state that they are in pursuit of the attackers, who fled after the ambush.[184]
  • June 13, 2014: A roadside bomb that was detonated near the town of Bulo Burde injured six AMISOM and Somali soldiers. At least three of the casualties were from the Djibouti contingent, and were airlifted to Mogadishu for medical attention after the attack.[185]
  • June 26, 2014: Militants from Al-Shabaab launched an attack on the town of Bulo-burde, which has been besieged by militants and cut off from road access since it came under government control in March. Witnesses say that the attack lasted thirty minutes and began when militants stormed a military base established in a hotel complex before they were driven back by the combined force of the SNA and AMISOM. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility and claimed to have killed six soldiers while the AU commander, Ibrahim Ali, stated that two Djiboutian peacekeepers, one civilian, and two militants were killed.[186]
  • August 16, 2014: The Somali government assisted by AMISOM launch Operation Indian Ocean to cleanup the remaining Al-Shabaab-held pockets in the countryside.[9]
  • August 25, 2014: Somali government forces assisted by Ethiopian AMISOM troops capture Tiyeglow from Al-Shabaab. The offensive is part of a larger military cleanup operation dubbed Operation Indian Ocean. Situated around 530 km northeast of Mogadishu along the main road linking Beledweyne and Baidoa, Tiyeglow previously served as a strategic base for the insurgent group. Witnesses indicate that the Al-Shabaab fighters mounted no resistance during the raid, fleeing instead to adjacent forested areas. According to AMISOM, the successful military operation deprives the insurgent group of high extortion fees that it would previously charge to vehicles traveling along the town's principal road. The siege also now gives the Somali government full control of the Bakool province. Additionally, AMISOM representatives indicate that, in an attempt to slow the allied forces' march, the insurgents planted roadside explosive devices before fleeing, which they were presently defusing.[187]
  • September 2014: Human Rights Watch published a report accusing a few soldiers within the Ugandan and Burundian contingents of AMISOM of sexual misconduct on two of the mission's bases in Mogadishu.[188] The African Union issued an official statement denying the allegations, which it characterized as isolated cases largely involving a single rogue soldier. It also pledged to investigate the charges, and indicated that a number of internal mechanisms had been instituted to prevent, mitigate and discipline any transgressions.[189]
  • September 6, 2014: Somali government forces assisted by Ethiopian troops seize El Garas in the Galguduud province from Al-Shabaab. According to the Somali military spokesman Mohamed Kariye Roble, the village was a main base for the insurgent group, serving as both a springboard from which it would launch attacks and a supply storage area.[190]
  • September 12, 2014: Ugandan and Kenyan AMISOM forces conduct security operations in Lagta Berta in Lower Juba, where Al-Shabaab had established two bases after vacating Barawe. The militant group incurs significant fatalities during the raid, including foreign insurgents, and a number of its fighters are also injured. The attack destroys the Al-Shabaab hideout facility.[191]
  • September 13, 2014: Somali government forces and AMISOM troops capture Aboreey, Moqokori, Yasooman and Muuse-geel villages in the Bulobarte district from Al-Shabaab. The militants mount no resistance.[192] Additionally, Somali government forces and AMISOM troops seize Abooto-barrey, Ceel-Sheel, Carraale and Kaawada villages in the Galguduud province's El Bur district from Al-Shabaab.[192]

See also


  1. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772. S/RES/1772(2007) page 3. }. (2007) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  2. ^ a b c "69th meeting of the peace and Security Council". Agence de Presse Africaine. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  3. ^ a b United Nations Security Council Resolution 1744. S/RES/1744(2007) }. (2007) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  4. ^ a b United Nations Security Council Resolution 1772. S/RES/1772(2007) }. (2007) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  5. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1801. S/RES/1801(2008) }. (2008) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  6. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1831. S/RES/1831(2008) }. (2008) Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  7. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 5942. S/PV/5942 23 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  8. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093".  S/RES/2093 (2013), 6 March 2013
  9. ^ a b "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". Raxanreeb. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "African Union endorses regional peace plan". Reuters. September 14, 2006.
  11. ^ a b United Nations Security Council Resolution 1725. S/RES/1725(2006) }. (2006) Retrieved 2008-03-13.
  12. ^ "IGAD to deploy peacekeepers despite opposition by faction leaders", IRIN, March 16, 2005
  13. ^ a b Security Council Report: July 2006: Somalia Security Council Report
  14. ^ Sam Kutesa: We call on the Security Council to lift the arms embargo to enable deployment of IGASOM and AU Forces."
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ Somali 'jihad' on foreign troops BBC
  18. ^ Communique IGAD
  19. ^ Security Council Report: December 2006: Somalia Security Council Report
  20. ^ Controversy in Ugandan government over sending troops to Somalia Shabelle Media Network
  21. ^ Uganda in quandary of sending peacekeepers to Somalia Shabelle Media Networks
  22. ^ [3] Voice of America
  23. ^ Ugandan troops ready to deploy to Somalia within days Shabelle Media Network
  24. ^ Latest News – SomaliNet
  25. ^ "Five killed in Mogadishu attacks". BBC News. January 26, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  26. ^ "US gives Somalia Sh6.4 billion".  
  27. ^ "AU wants UN role in Somalia". Reuters. 2007-01-20. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  28. ^ "Malawi to send peacekeepers to Somalia".  
  29. ^ "Nigeria to send peacekeeping battalion to Somalia". Reuters. 2007-01-24. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  30. ^ "Burundi joins Somalia peace force". BBC. 2007-02-01. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  31. ^ "Burundi troops ready to join Somalia peacekeepers". Reuters. 2007-03-27. Archived from the original on 1 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  32. ^ "Security Council press statement on somalia SC/8947 AFR/1495".  
  33. ^ "Tanzania offers to train Somali troops, not deploy".  
  34. ^ "Diplomats stress need for all-inclusive talks on the future of Somalia". USA Today. Associated Press. 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  35. ^ "Peacekeeping protests in Somalia". BBC. 2007-02-09. Archived from the original on 23 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  36. ^ "Off to Somalia". 2007-02-09. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  37. ^ "Ugandan Troops Set to Arrive in Somalia as Part of AU Force".  
  38. ^ "Burundi delays Somali deployment". BBC News. August 7, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Burundi troops join AU in Somalia", BBC News, 23 December 2007
  40. ^ France 24
  41. ^ a b AFP: Burundi completes Somalia deployment
  42. ^ Kazooba, Charles (2010-07-26). "Somalia: AU Ministers Agree to 'Take On' Al Shabaab". Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  43. ^ Kasasira, Risdel; Solomon Muyita (2010-07-28). "Africa: United Nations Blocks Change of Amisom Mandate". Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-29. 
  44. ^ "AU nations to boost Somalia force".  
  45. ^ PANA, Nairobi, 17/9/2010, via Africa Research Bulletin-PSC, September 1-31, 2010, Vol. 47, No. 9, p.18561C.
  46. ^ Africa Research Bulletin Dec 1-31, 2010, p.18664-5, reporting PANA New York 23/12/2010, New Vision Kampala 23/12/2010, and RFI in Paris.
  47. ^ a b "Burundi sends 1,000 extra AU troops to Somalia". Reuters. March 12, 2011. 
  48. ^ AFP 14/3/2011, reported in ARB-PSC March 1-31, 2011, p.18776C.
  49. ^ "UN council approves increase in AU Somalia force". Reuters. 22 February 2012. 
  50. ^ "Somali's al Shabaab crumbling: AU". 23 February 2012. 
  51. ^ "U.S. steps up training for African force in Somalia". Chicago Tribune. 1 May 2012. 
  52. ^ Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission
  53. ^ a b Joint Communique - Operation Linda Nchi
  54. ^ a b Kenya agrees to join AMISOM
  55. ^ The East African website, Nairobi, 19/3/2012, via Africa REsearch Bulletin-PSC, Vol 49, No. 3, March 1-31, 2012, 19205-6.
  56. ^ Ethiopia says no plans to withdraw troops from Somalia
  57. ^ Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration
  58. ^ Is Ethiopia on al-Shabab's hit list?
  59. ^ Somalia: Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia
  60. ^ Hiiraan Online: Somali war expertise and superior combat kits to boost anti-terror campaign
  61. ^ [4]
  62. ^ Martinez, Luis (10 January 2014). "U.S. Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia: First Time Since Blackhawk Down". ABC News. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  63. ^ a b c d e UPDF shuffles Somalia command
  64. ^ a b "3,000 African Union Troops Arrive in Mogadishu". SomaliaReport. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  65. ^ [5]
  66. ^ "Lieutenant General Andrew Gutti takes command of AU forces in Somalia – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  67. ^ a b c d e "AMISOM Facebook Page". Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  68. ^ [6]
  69. ^ "Spokesperson". 2012-09-23. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  70. ^ [7]
  71. ^ "New Amisom commander promoted to Major General". Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  72. ^ a b [8]
  73. ^ [9]
  74. ^ [10]
  75. ^ [11]
  76. ^ [12]
  77. ^ a b AMISOM civilian staff relocate to Somalia
  78. ^ Nick Turse, The Election Year Outsourcing No One's Talking About: The U.S. Fighting Proxy Wars Around the Globe, August 13, 2012
  79. ^ "Sierra Leone troops complete AMISOM deployment training". DVIDS. 
  80. ^ "Sierra Leone Defence Minister denies reports of killings in Somalia", Awareness Times, June 23, 2012
  81. ^ Kevin J. Kelley, Somalia: How 'Quiet Americans' Helped Defeat Al Shabaab,, Aug 22, 2011.
  82. ^ Khadija Patel, 'SA's guns-for-hire in Somalia - what happens now?', 26 July 2012
  83. ^ [13]
  84. ^ a b c "Uganda: UPDF Loses 4 Men in Baidoa, Somalia". 
  85. ^ a b "Uganda: UPDF Suffers Heavy Losses in Somalia". 
  86. ^ 2,700 Ugandan troops dead in Somalia: official
  87. ^ [14]
  88. ^ a b "Uganda, Burundi Troops Lost under 500 Soldiers in Somalia - Army Spokesman". Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  89. ^ a b 43 Burundian soldiers killed in Somalia
  90. ^ a b SOMALIA: The only Burundian soldier ‘POW’ held by Al Shabab in critical health
  91. ^ [15]
  92. ^ Dalsan Radio:Al Shabaab says they killed Ethiopian soldiers near Wabho town
  93. ^ [16]
  94. ^ [17]
  95. ^ 2 700 Ugandans dead in Somalia - claim
  96. ^ "La prise de Kysmaayo par les armées kényanes et somaliennes". African Union Mission in Somalia. October 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  97. ^ [18]
  98. ^ a b Somalie: Fusillade au sein du contingent militaire djiboutien
  99. ^ BBC News:Somalia's al-Shabab attacks army hotel in Bulo-burde
  100. ^ BBC:Somalia's al-Shabab kill AU soldiers in Bulo-burde
  101. ^ [19]
  102. ^ [20]
  103. ^ [21]
  104. ^ Up to 3,000 African peacekeepers killed in Somalia since 2007: U.N.
  105. ^ [22]
  106. ^
  107. ^ AMISOM - Mission de l'Union africaine en Somalie / African Union Mission in Somalia
  108. ^ [23]
  109. ^ Garowe Online
  110. ^  
  111. ^ Ali Musa Abdi (2007-05-16). "Mogadishu blast kills four Ugandan peacekeepers".  
  112. ^
  113. ^ Uganda: Local Soldiers Wounded in Somalia
  114. ^ Issue 301
  115. ^ Press TV – Troop killed in Somali explosion
  116. ^ Garowe Online – Home
  117. ^ Latest News – SomaliNet
  118. ^ [24]
  119. ^ "Somali bombing kills peacekeeper". BBC News. August 1, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  120. ^ Search - Global Edition - The New York Times
  121. ^ Ugandan peacekeeper killed in fresh Mogadishu attack
  122. ^ News - AlertNet
  123. ^ | news | world | Somalia | 17419 - SomaliNet
  124. ^ Ugandan peacekeeper, WFP worker killed in Somalia
  125. ^ "Somalia fighting kills at least 39 civilians -". CNN. February 2, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  126. ^ AU Condemns Attacks on Peacekeepers in Somalia | News | English
  127. ^ Somalia: Injured Burundi soldier died in suicide attack | Somali Press
  128. ^ AU says peacekeeper killed in Somalia
  129. ^ Somalia: Ugandan Peacekeeper Killed in Blast
  130. ^ Somalia: Three UPDF Soldiers Killed
  131. ^ [25]
  132. ^ Uganda: UPDF in Somalia Hit By Strange Disease
  133. ^ News - AlertNet
  134. ^ "Suicide blasts hit Somalia base". BBC News. September 17, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2010. 
  135. ^ Gulf of Aden Security Review - November 16, 2009 | Critical Threats
  136. ^ Gulf of Aden Security Review - April 29, 2010 | Critical Threats
  137. ^ News - AlertNet
  138. ^ News - AlertNet
  139. ^ No Operation
  140. ^ "Ugandan peacekeepers killed in Somalia clashes".  
  141. ^ Uganda: Army Says 100 Soldiers Killed in Fighting
  142. ^ Somali presidential palace shelled - Africa - Al Jazeera English
  143. ^ Suicide blasts hit Mogadishu, 2 peacekeepers killed - AlertNet
  144. ^ "African Union peacekeepers cite struggles in expanding reach across Somalia's troubled capital". Fox News. September 17, 2010. 
  145. ^ Uganda: UPDF Soldier Killed in Somalia
  146. ^ African Union Forces Admit One Of Its Soldiers Killed In Somalia | AHN
  147. ^ AFP: Somali fighters display soldier's body in Mogadishu
  148. ^ Gulf of Aden Security Review - November 2, 2010 | Critical Threats
  149. ^ Gulf of Aden Security Review - November 1, 2010 | Critical Threats
  150. ^ AFP: Somalie: 21 civils tués dans des violences à Mogadiscio
  151. ^ » | Suna Times - Somali News, Sports, Videos iyo Music
  152. ^ Burundian army deplores killing of peacekeeper in Somalia - Shabelle
  153. ^ a b "'"Somalia's al-Shabab 'holds 18 Burundian bodies. BBC News. March 4, 2011. 
  154. ^ Somali clashes leave 82 AU troops dead
  155. ^ "Affordable News, Weather and Content for Websites, Apps and Digital Signage | FeedSyndicate". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  156. ^ "Somalia: Government captures Al-Shabab militia bases". 2011-03-05. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  157. ^ "No Operation". Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  158. ^
  159. ^ "'"AFP: Three African troops 'killed in Mogadishu fighting. 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  160. ^ [26]
  161. ^
  162. ^ "TFG / AMISOM secure remaining al shabaab strongholds in Mogadishu – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  163. ^ African Union Force Makes Strides Inside Somalia
  164. ^ Al-Shabaab killed more than 150(Update) AMISOM soldiers in recent battle in Mogadishu
  165. ^ "Le contrà´le de Deynile est crucial pour la sécurité de Mogadiscio – AMISOM". 2012-11-28. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  166. ^ [27]
  167. ^ [28]
  168. ^ "SOMALIE. Un Américain auteur d'un attentat-suicide - Le Nouvel Observateur". 2011-10-30. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  169. ^ "Shabelle Media Network | | Shabakada Warbaahinta Shabelle |". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  170. ^ [29]
  171. ^ "AMISOM forces launch a military offensive to consolidate security in Mogadishu – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  172. ^ "Les Forces de l’AMISOM capturent Maslah et élargissent la Défense de Mogadiscio – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  173. ^ "Les Forces de l’AMISOM capturent le district de Daynille – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  174. ^ "Les forces de l’AMISOM capturent la ville de Miido, 36 Al-Shabaab tués – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  175. ^ Kenya finds 3 missing soldiers in Somalia
  176. ^ Somalia: KDF Soldiers Almost Ready for Major Offensive
  177. ^ "L’AMISOM récupère une ville se trouvant à 50 km de Kismayo – AMISOM". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  178. ^ Uganda: UPDF Suffers Heavy Losses in Somalia
  179. ^ "At least 2 Kenyan soldiers killed in Garissa gun attack". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  180. ^ Garowe Online: Somalia: Federal Govt, AMISOM troops clash with Al Shabaab
  181. ^ BBC News:Somalia's al-Shabab attacks army hotel in Bulo-burde
  182. ^ Dalsan Radio:Al Shabaab says they killed Ethiopian soldiers near Wabho town
  183. ^ [30]
  184. ^ [31]
  185. ^ [32]
  186. ^ BBC:Somalia's al-Shabab kill AU soldiers in Bulo-burde
  187. ^ "Somalia forces and AMISOM liberate Tiyeeglow town in Bakool region from al-shabaab". Garowe Online. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  188. ^ "AMISOM forces accused of sex abuse". New Vision. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  189. ^ "Somalia: African Union strongly rejects Human Rights Watch allegations on sexual abuse". AMISOM. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 
  190. ^ "Somalia: Federal Govt, Ethiopian forces seize Al Shabaab-held village". Garowe Online. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  191. ^ "Somalia: AMISOM successfully carried out operation on two Al-Shabaab camps". Garowe Online. 13 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  192. ^ a b "SOMALIA: Government forces and AU troops move Al-shabab from villages in Gal-gudud and Hiran regions". Raxanreeb. 13 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 

External links

  • Official website
  • "AU peacekeepers mired in Somalia", BBC, September 24, 2008
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.