World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sooty oystercatcher

Article Id: WHEBN0002729928
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sooty oystercatcher  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Oystercatcher, Marpa National Park, Oyster Rocks, Coffin Bay National Park, Busby Islet
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Sooty oystercatcher

Sooty oystercatcher
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Haematopodidae
Genus: Haematopus
Species: H. fuliginosus
Binomial name
Haematopus fuliginosus
Gould, 1845

The sooty oystercatcher (Haematopus fuliginosus) is a species of oystercatcher. It is a wading bird endemic to Australia and commonly found on its coastline. It prefers rocky coastlines, but will occasionally live in estuaries. All of its feathers are black. It has a red eye, eye ring and bill, and pink legs.

Contents

  • Taxonomy 1
  • Description 2
  • Distribution and habitat 3
  • Feeding 4
  • Breeding 5
  • References 6

Taxonomy

John Gould described the sooty oystercatcher in 1845. Its species name is the Latin adjective fuliginosus, "sooty". Two subspecies are recognised, the nominate from the coastline of southern Australia and subspecies ophthalmicus from northern Australia. The southern subspecies is larger and heavier than the northern.[2] The northern one, with a more yellowish eye ring, is found from the Kimberleys across the top of the country to Mackay in central Queensland. There is considerable overlap, as the southern subspecies has been found up to Cape York.[3] Subspecies ophthalmicus has been thought distinctive enough to warrant species status and needs further investigation.[4] Black redbill is a local name.[5]

Description

Measuring 42 to 52 cm (19-20.5 in) long with a bill length of 5–8 cm (2-2.6 in), the sooty oystercatcher has all black plumage,[5] with pink-red legs and scarlet or orange-red bill and eyes.[3] The heaviest of all oystercatchers, the sooty oystercatcher weighs up to 980 g (2.16 lb), averaging around 819 g (1.806 lb),[6] with females larger and heavier in both subspecies.[2] Males have shorter, thicker bills and females have longer, thinner bills. The 19% average difference in length is the most marked of any oystercatcher species.[7] Immature birds have grey-brown legs, a bill tipped with brown, a browner cast to their plumage,[5] and brown eyes. The bill, eyes and legs become red by the second year.[3]

Distribution and habitat

Preferring rocky shores, the sooty oystercatcher is endemic to Australia. There are an estimated 11,500 individuals, 4000 of the nominate race and 7500 of the northern race.[3] It is common around the Tasmanian coastline and Bass Strait islands.[8] However it is declared Rare in South Australia and Queensland, Near Threatened in Victoria and Endangered in New South Wales.[9]

Feeding

The sooty oystercatcher almost always forages in the intertidal zone, for the two hours either side of low tide.[7] A field study published in 2011 showed that prey items differed markedly between the sexes with only a 36% overlap. Females focussed on soft-bodied prey which they could swallow whole such as fish, crabs, bluebottle jellyfish and various worm-like creatures such as cunjevoi, while males preferred hard-shelled prey such as mussels (Mytilus planulatus), sea urchins, turban shells (Turbo undulatus and Turbo torquata), and black periwinkle (Nerita atramentosa).[7]

Breeding

A clutch of two to three eggs is laid in a crevice in rocks or small hollow or flat on the ground, often on an island or high place where parent birds can keep watch. Tapered oval in shape, the eggs are buff to beige with dark brown and lavender dots and splotches and measure 63 mm (2.5 in) long by 42 mm (1.7 in) wide.[10]

Mooloolaba, Australia


References

  1. ^  
  2. ^ a b Hansen, B. D.; Minton, C. D. T.; Jessop, R.; Collins, P. (2009). "Biometrics, sexing criteria, age-structure and moult of Sooty Oystercatchers in south-eastern and north-western Australia". Emu 109: 25.  
  3. ^ a b c d Andrew Geering, Lindsay Agnew, Sandra Harding (2007). Shorebirds of Australia. Collingwood, Victoria: Csiro Publishing.  
  4. ^ Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 131.  
  5. ^ a b c South Coast Shorebird Recovery Program. "Sooty Oystercatcher" (PDF). Threatened Species Information. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  6. ^ John B. Dunning Jr. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. p. 98.  
  7. ^ a b c Aplin, Lucy Margaret; Cockburn, Andrew (2012). "Ecological Selection and Sexual Dimorphism in the Sooty Oystercatcher, Haematopus fuliginosus". Austral Ecology 37 (2): 248–57.  
  8. ^ Parks & Wildlife Service (2010). "Haematopus fuliginosus"Sooty Oystercatcher, . Nature & Conservation. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Tasmanian Government. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  9. ^ NSW Scientific Committee (May 2008). : Review of Current Information in NSW"Haematopus fuliginosus"Sooty Oystercatcher (PDF). Hurstville, NSW. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  10. ^ *  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.