World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Arabic: سنجار
Kurdish: شەنگال
Yezidi Temple on Mount Sinjar, 2004.
Yezidi Temple on Mount Sinjar, 2004.
Sinjar is located in Iraq
Location within Iraq
Country  Iraq
Governorate Nineveh
District Sinjar District
Elevation 522 m (1,713 ft)
Population (2013)
 • Total 450,000
Time zone GMT (UTC+3)

Sinjar (Arabic: سنجار‎, Sinjar; Latin: Singara), also known as Shingal (Central Kurdish: شەنگال, Shengali: Şengal; Classical Syriac: ܫܝܓܳܪ, Shiggor) and formerly Sanjár,[1] is a town in Sinjar District, Nineveh Province, Iraq near Mount Sinjar. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 88,023.[2] The town is mainly inhabited by Yazidis with Arab and Assyrian minorities.

The important Chermera temple (meaning 40 Men) is found at the highest peak of the Sinjar Mountains.


Singara in a detail from Peutinger's map, a medieval copy of a 4th-century Roman original.
A map of the "Jazira"'s provinces in medieval times.

Peutinger's map of the inhabited world known to the Roman geographers depicts Singara as located west of the Trogoditi. Persi. (Latin: Troglodytae Persiae, "Persian troglodytes") who inhabited the territory around Mount Sinjar. By the medieval Arabs, Sinjar was reckoned as part of the province of Diyār Rabīʿa, the "abode of the Rabīʿa" tribe. The nearby Plain of Sanjár (now the Nineveh Plains) was the site of the determination of the degree by al-Khwārizmī and other astronomers during the reign of the caliph al-Mamun.[1] The city boasted a famous Assyrian church in the 8th century.[3]

In 2007, several explosions set off by al-Qaeda in Iraq killed hundreds of Yazidis in Sinjar.[4]

In August 2014, after the Peshmerga was defeated or scared away, ISIL conquered Sinjar and perpetrated the Sinjar massacre killing 500-2,000 Yazidi civilians, according to Yazidi witnesses on 5 and 6 August, leading to a mass exodus of Yazidi residents, branded by the Islamic State as "devil worshipers".[5] The New York Times, unaware of or not trusting those reports from Yazidis themselves, reported on 7 August that "ISIS executed dozens of Yazidi men, and kept the dead men’s wives [alive] for unmarried jihadi fighters."[6]

On the night of 20 December 2014, Kurdish forces pushed into the city of Sinjar near the end of a massive offensive.[7] However, the Kurdish advance into the city was stalled, as they faced fierce resistance from the ISIL militants inside the southern half of the city.[8]

See also

Districts of Nineveh


  1. ^ a b Abul Fazl-i-Ạllámí (1894), "Description of the Earth", The Áin I Akbarí, Vol. III, Translated by H.S. Jarrett, Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press for the Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 25–27 .
  2. ^ "Iraq: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". World Gazetteer. 
  3. ^ A short history of Syriac literature. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  4. ^ Shefler, Gil (August 7, 2014). "Islamic State accused of capturing Yazidi women and forcing them to convert, or else". Washington Post. Religion News Service. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  5. ^ Loveday Morris (3 August 2014). "Islamic State seizes town of Sinjar, pushing out Kurds and sending Yazidis fleeing".  
  6. ^ Jihadists Rout Kurds in North and Seize Strategic Iraqi Dam. By Tim Arango. August 7, 2014
  7. ^ "Iraq's Kurds press offensive against Islamic State in Sinjar". DPA International. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "Iraqi Kurds Advance Against Islamic State in Sinjar". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.