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List of organisms by chromosome count

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List of organisms by chromosome count

Karyotype of a human being, showing 22 autosomal pair of autosomal chromosomes and both the XX female and the XY male possibilitie for the pair of sex chromosome
Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere. As other non-human extant hominidae have 48 chromosomes it is believed that the human chromosome 2 is the end result of the merging of two chromosomes.[1]

The list of organisms by chromosome count describes karotype,[2][3][4] and can be found by looking at the chromosomes through a microscope. Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes, and any other physical characteristics.[5] The preparation and study of karyotypes is part of cytogenetics.

Diploid number ("2n") is given, except as noted.

Organism Picture Group Scientific name Diploid number of chromosomes (2n = x), except as noted Notes
Ciliated protozoa Other Eukaryotes Oxytricha trifallax 1,900x = ~30,000,000 [6][7] Macronuclear "nanochromosomes"; ampliploid.
Ciliated protozoa Other Eukaryotes Tetrahymena thermophila 10 (in micronucleus) 50x = 12,500 (in macronucleus, except minichromosomes)
10,000x = 10,000 (macronuclear minichromosomes)[8]
Australian pitcher plant Plants Cephalotus follicularis 20 [9]
Adders-tongue Plants Ophioglossum reticulatum 1260 [10] Number given is maximum, shows many variants.
Black mulberry Plants Morus nigra 308 [11] In this case, the chromosome number is docosaploid, or 22 times the basic number.
Agrodiaetus butterfly Animals Agrodiaetus shahrami 268 [12] This insect has one of the highest chromosome numbers among all multicellular animals.
Field horsetail Plants Equisetum arvense 216
Rattlesnake fern Plants Botrypus virginianus 184[13]
Northern lamprey Animals Petromyzontinae 174[6]
Carp Animals 104
Red viscacha rat Animals Tympanoctomys barrerae 102 [14] Highest number known in mammals, thought to be a tetraploid[15] or allotetraploid.[16]
Kamraj (fern) Plants Helminthostachys zeylanica 94
Aquatic rat Animals Anotomys leander 92[17] Previously thought to be the highest number in mammals, tied with Ichthyomys pittieri.
Shrimp Animals Penaeus semisulcatus 86–92 [18]
Pittier's crab-eating rat Animals Ichthyomys pittieri 92[17] Previously thought to be the highest number in mammals, tied with Anotomys leander.
Grape fern
Plants Sceptridium 90
Hedgehog Genus Atelerix (African hedgehogs) Animals 90
Moonworts Plants Botrychium 90
Hedgehog genus Erinaceus (woodland hedgehogs) Animals 88
Pigeon Animals Columbidae 80
Turkey Animals Meleagris 80[19]
African wild dog Animals Lycaon pictus 78[20]
Chicken Animals Gallus gallus domesticus 78
Coyote Animals Canis latrans 78[20]
Dhole Animals Cuon alpinus 78
Dingo Animals Canis lupus dingo 78[20]
Dog Animals Canis lupus familiaris 78[21] 76 autosomal and 2 sexual.[22]
Dove Animals Columbidae 78[23] Based on African collared dove
Golden jackal Animals Canis aureus 78[20]
Gray wolf Animals Canis lupus 78
Maned wolf Animals Chrysocyon brachyurus 76
American black bear Animals Ursus americanus 74
Asiatic black bear Animals Ursus thibetanus 74
Brown bear Animals Ursus arctos 74
Polar bear Animals Ursus maritimus 74
Sloth bear Animals Melursus ursinus 74
Sun bear Animals Helarctos malayanus 74
Bat-eared fox Animals Otocyon megalotis 72[20]
Black nightshade Plants Solanum nigrum 72[24]
White-tailed deer Animals Odocoileus virginianus 70
Elk (Wapiti) Animals Cervus canadensis 68
Red deer Animals Cervus elaphus 68
Gray fox Animals Urocyon cinereoargenteus 66[20]
Raccoon dog Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides 66 Some variation in the number of chromosomes between individuals [25]
Chinchilla Animals Chinchilla lanigera 64 [26]
Echidna Animals 63/64 63 (X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5, male) and 64 (X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4X5X5, female)[27]
Fennec fox Animals Vulpes zerda 64[20]
Horse Animals Equus ferus caballus 64
Spotted skunk Animals Spilogale x 64
Mule Animals 63 semi-infertile (odd number of chromosomes - between donkey (62) and horse (64) makes meiosis much more difficult)
Donkey Animals Equus africanus asinus 62
Giraffe Animals Giraffa camelopardalis 62
Gypsy moth Animals Lymantria dispar dispar 62
Bengal fox Animals Vulpes bengalensis 60
American bison Animals Bison bison 60
Cow/Bull Animals Bos primigenius 60
Goat Animals Capra aegagrus hircus 60
Yak Animals Bos mutus 60
Woolly mammoth Animals Mammuthus primigenius 58 extinct; tissue from a frozen carcass
Elephant Animals Elephantidae 56
Gaur Animals Bos gaurus 56
Capuchin monkey Animals Cebus x 54[28]
Hyrax Animals Hyracoidea 54[29] Hyraxes are considered to be the closest living relative to the Elephant.[30]
Sheep Animals Ovis orientalis aries 54
Silkworm Animals Bombyx mori 54
Cotton Plants Gossypium hirsutum 52[31] 2n=4x; Cultivated upland cotton is derived from an allotetraploid
Platypus Animals Ornithorhynchus anatinus 52 [32] Ten sex chromosomes.
Spectacled bear Animals Tremarctos ornatus 52
Kit fox Animals Vulpes macrotis 50
Pineapple Plants Ananas comosus 50[31]
Striped skunk Animals Mephitis mephitis 50
Water buffalo (swamp type) Animals Bubalus bubalis 50
Zebrafish Animals Danio rerio 50[33]
Beaver (Eurasian) Animals Castor fiber 48
Chimpanzee Animals Pan troglodytes 48[34]
Deer mouse Animals Peromyscus maniculatus 48
Gorilla Animals Gorilla 48
Hare[35][36] Animals Lepus 48
Orangutan Animals Pongo x 48
Potato Plants Solanum tuberosum 48[31] This is a tetraploid; wild relatives mostly have 2n=24.[31]
Tobacco Plants Nicotiana tabacum 48[31] Cultivated species is a tetraploid.[31]
Water buffalo (river type) Animals Bubalus bubalis 48
Human Animals Homo sapiens 46[37] 44 autosomal and 2 sex
Reeves's muntjac Animals Muntiacus reevesi 46
Sable antelope Animals Hippotragus niger 46
Dolphin Animals Delphinidae Delphis 44
Moon jellyfish Animals Aurelia aurita 44 [38]
Eurasian badger Animals Meles meles 44
European rabbit Animals Oryctolagus cuniculus 44
Fossa Animals Cryptoprocta ferox 42
Giant panda Animals Ailuropoda melanoleuca 42
Oats Plants Avena sativa 42[31] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Diploid and tetraploid cultivated species also exist.[31]
Raccoon dog Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides 42 some sources say sub-species differ with 38, 54, and even 56 chromosomes
Rat Animals Rattus norvegicus 42 [39]
Rhesus monkey Animals Macaca mulatta 42[40]
Wheat Plants Triticum aestivum 42[31] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Durum wheat is Triticum turgidum var. durum, and is a tetraploid with 2n=4x=28.[31]
Wolverine Animals Gulo gulo 42
Beaver (American) Animals Castor canadensis 40
European polecat Animals Mustela putorius 40
Ferret Animals Mustela putorius furo 40
Hyena Animals Hyaenidae 40
Mango Plants Mangifera indica 40[31]
Mouse Animals Mus musculus 40[41]
Trans-Pecos ratsnake Animals Bogertophis subocularis 40[42]
American marten Animals Martes americana 38
Baja California ratsnake Animals Bogertophis rosaliae 38[43]
Beech marten Animals Martes foina 38
Cat Animals Felis silvestris catus 38
Coatimundi Animals 38
European mink Animals Mustela lutreola 38
Fisher Animals 38 a type of marten
Lion Animals Panthera leo 38
Oriental small-clawed otter Animals Aonyx cinerea 38
Pig Animals Sus 38
Pine marten Animals Martes martes 38
Raccoon Animals Procyon lotor 38[44]
Sable Animals Martes zibellina 38
Sea otter Animals Enhydra lutris 38
Tanuki/raccoon dog Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides albus 38
Tiger Animals Panthera tigris 38
Earthworm Animals Lumbricus terrestris 36
Long-nosed cusimanse) Animals crossarchus obscurus 36
Meerkat Animals Suricata suricatta 36
Red panda Animals Ailurus fulgens 36
Starfish Animals Asteroidea 36
Tibetan sand fox Animals Vulpes ferrilata 36
Yellow mongoose Animals Cynictis penicillata 36
Porcupine Animals Erethizon dorsatum 34 [26]
Red fox Animals Vulpes vulpes 34[20] Plus 3-5 microsomes.
Alfalfa Plants Medicago sativa 32[31] Cultivated alfalfa is tetraploid, with 2n=4x=32. Wild relatives have 2n=16.[31]
American badger Animals Taxidea taxus 32
European honey bee Animals Apis mellifera 32 32 for females, males are haploid and thus have 16.
Yeast Other Eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerivisiae 32
American mink Animals Neovison vison 30
Pill millipede Animals Arthrosphaera magna attems 30 [45]
Bittersweet nightshade Plants Solanum dulcamara 24[46][47]
Husk tomato Plants Physalis pubescens 24[48]
Silverleaf nightshade Plants Solanum elaeagnifolium 24[49]
Rice Plants Oryza sativa 24[31]
Snail Animals 24
Bean Plants Phaseolus sp. 22[31] All species in the genus have the same chromosome number, including P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. acutifolis,and P. lunatus.[31]
Virginia opossum Animals Didelphis virginiana 22[50]
Tropical pitcher plant Plants Nepenthes rafflesiana 78 [9]
Cannabis Plants Cannabis sativa 20
Maize Plants Zea mays 20[31]
Cabbage Plants Brassica oleracea 18[31] Broccoli, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number.[31]
Radish Plants Raphanus sativus 18[31]
Kangaroo Animals 16 This includes several members genus Macropus, but not the red kangaroo (M. rufus, 20)[51]
Koala Animals Phascolarctos cinereus 16
Barley Plants Hordeum vulgare 14[31]
Pea Plants Pisum sativum 14[31]
Rye Plants Secale cereale 14[31]
Tasmanian devil Animals Sarcophilus harrisii 14
Slime mold Other Eukaryotes Dictyostelium discoideum 12 [52]
Swamp wallaby Animals Wallabia bicolor 10/11 11 for male, 10 for female[53]
Nematode Animals Caenorhabditis elegans 12/11 12 for hermaphrodites, 11 for males
Waterwheel plant Plants Aldrovanda vesiculosa 38 [9]
Thale cress Plants Arabidopsis thaliana 10
Fruit fly Animals Drosophila melanogaster 8[54] 6 autosomal, and 2 sexual
Hieracium Plants 8
Indian muntjac Animals Muntiacus muntjak 6/7[55] female/male
Yellowfever mosquito Animals Aedes aegypti 6[56] The 2n=6 chromosome number is conserved in the entire family Culicidae, except in Chagasia bathana which has 2n=8.[56]
Spider mite Animals 4–14[57] Spider mites (family Tetranychidae) are typically haplodiploidy (males are haploid, while females are diploid)[57]
Australian daisy Plants Brachyscome dichromosomatica 2 [58] This species can have more B chromosomes than A chromosomes at times, but 2n=2.
Jack jumper ant Animals Myrmecia pilosula 2[59] 2 for females, males are haploid and thus have 1; smallest number possible. Other ant species have more chromosomes.[59]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Concise Oxford Dictionary
  3. ^ White 1973, p. 28
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ "You Have 46 Chromosomes. This Pond Creature Has 15,600", National Geographic, [1].
  8. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746294/
  9. ^ a b c
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h
  21. ^
  22. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/guide/dog/
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=3180kk1kk0873012&size=largest
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ "Hyrax: The Little Brother of the Elephant", Wildlife on One, BBC TV.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
  32. ^
  33. ^ http://genome.cshlp.org/content/10/12/1890.long
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/GCF_000001895.5
  40. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2267682/
  41. ^ The Jackson Laboratory: Mice with chromosomal aberrations.
  42. ^ [2]: Chromosomes of Elaphe subocularis (Reptilia: Serpentes), with the description of an in vivo technique for preparation of snake chromosomes.
  43. ^ [3]: Mengden, Greg. 1985. In Dowling, H.G. and. RM. Price. 1988. A proposed new genus for Elaphe subocularis and Elaphe rosaliae. The Snake 20(1): 53, 61.
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^ a b
  57. ^ a b
  58. ^
  59. ^ a b

External links

  • List of pages in English from Russian bionet site
  • The dog through evolution
  • Shared synteny of human chromosome 17 loci in Canids
  • (1951); PDF downloads of each chapterAn atlas of the chromosome numbers in animals
  • Bell, G. (1982). The Masterpiece of Nature: The Evolution and Genetics of Sexuality (University of California Press, Berkeley), p. 450, [4] (table with a compilation of haploid chromosome number of many algae and protozoa, in column "HAP").
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