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Abkhaz–Georgian conflict

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Abkhaz–Georgian conflict

Georgian–Abkhaz conflict
Date 1989–present
Location Abkhazia, Georgia

UNA-UNSO (1992-1993)

 Chechen Militants (2001 Kodori crisis)
Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus (1992-1993)
1Involvement prior to 2008 disputed; discussed in the articles about the conflict, particularly here
Part of a series on the
Abkhazia portal

The Georgian–Abkhaz conflict involves geopolitical conflict in the Caucasus region, intensified at the end of the 20th century with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

The conflict, one of the bloodiest in the post-Soviet area, remains unresolved. The Georgian government has offered substantial

  • Accord issue on the Georgia Abkhazia peace process also includes chronology and key texts & agreements. (English)&(Russian)
  • Documented accounts of ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia at the Wayback Machine (archived June 7, 2007) (Russian)
  • Documented accounts of ethnic cleansing of Abkhazians by Georgians (Russian)
  • Government of Abkhazia (-in-exile)

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

External links

  • Andersen, Andrew. "Russia Versus Georgia: One Undeclared War in the Caucasus."
  • Blair, Heather "Ethnic Conflict as a Tool of Outside Influence: An Examination of Abkhazia and Kosovo.", 2007
  • Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
  • Lynch, Dov. The Conflict in Abkhazia: Dilemmas in Russian 'Peacekeeping' Policy. Royal Institute of International Affairs, February 1998.
  • MacFarlane, S., N., “On the front lines in the near abroad: the CIS and the OSCE in Georgia’ s civil wars”, Third World Quarterly, Vol 18, No 3, pp 509– 525, 1997.
  • Marshania, L., Tragedy of Abkhazia, Moscow, 1996
  • McCallion, Amy Abkhazian Separatism
  • Steele, Jon. "War Junkie: One Man`s Addiction to the Worst Places on Earth" Corgi (2002). ISBN 0-552-14984-5
  • White Book of Abkhazia. 1992–1993 Documents, Materials, Evidences. Moscow, 1993.

Further reading

  1. ^ "The staff of the Foreign Ministry of Abkhazia laid a wreath at the memorial in the Park of Glory on the Memorial Day of Fatherland Defenders". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  2. ^ Gerard Toal (20 March 2014). "How people in South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Transnistria feel about annexation by Russia". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  3. ^ US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case
  4. ^ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
  5. ^ US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, February 1994, Chapter 17.
  6. ^ Resolution of the OSCE Budapest Summit, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 6 December 1994
  8. ^ Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia Commonwealth and Independence in Post-Soviet Eurasia by Bruno Coppieters, Alekseĭ Zverev, Dmitriĭ Trenin, p 61.
  9. ^ USSR Atlas – in Russian – Moscow 1984
  11. ^ "Россия и Грузия готовятся к миру". Газета.Ru. 2011-09-22. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  12. ^ Jacques Sapir « La Russie a été poussée à changer d’orientation » – The prominent French expert in Russia Jacques Sapir's article in L'Humanité
  13. ^ "Новости :: Апсныпресс". 2010-01-30. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  14. ^ a b Abkhazia Today. The International Crisis Group Europe Report N°176, 15 September 2006, page 10. Retrieved on May 30, 2007. Free registration needed to view full report
  15. ^ "UN Representative Says Abkhazia Dialogue Is Positive"
  16. ^ Tbilisi-Based Abkhaz Government Moves to Kodori, Civil Georgia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  17. ^ Sputnik (11 September 2007). "Abkhazia demands Georgia pay $13 bln war compensation". Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  19. ^ OSCE Parliamentary Assembly from 5 to 9 July 2012, Final Declaration and Resolutions
  20. ^ Harding, Luke (August 10, 2008). "Georgia under all-out attack in breakaway Abkhazia". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Russia Recognizes Independence of Georgian Regions (Update2)".  
  22. ^ "Georgia breaks ties with Russia" BBC News. Accessed on August 29, 2008.
  23. ^ Yuschenko, Saakashvili open new building of Georgian Embassy in Kyiv, Interfax-Ukraine (November 19, 2009)


See also

Relations between Georgia and Abkhazia have remained tense after the war. Georgia has moved to increase Abkhazia's isolation by imposing a Mikheil Saakashvili stated that residents of South Ossetia and Abkhazia could also use its facilities "I would like to assure you, my dear friends, that this is your home, as well, and here you will always be able to find support and understanding".[23]

After the war

In response to Russia's recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the Georgian government announced that the country cut all diplomatic relations with Russia and that it left the Commonwealth of Independent States.[22]

On August 26, 2008, the Russian Federation officially recognized both South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states.[21]

As a result of this attack, Georgian troops were driven out of Abkhazia entirely. [20] On August 10, 2008, the 2008 War in South Ossetia spread to Abkhazia, where separatist rebels and the Russian air force launched an all-out attack on Georgian forces. Abkhazia's pro-Moscow separatist President

August 2008

[19] On July 9, 2012, the

Currently, the Abkhaz side demands reparations from the Georgian side of $13 billion in US currency for damages in this conflict. The Georgian side dismisses these claims.[17] On May 15, 2008 United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution recognising the right of all refugees (including victims of reported “ethnic cleansing”) to return to Abkhazia and their property rights. It "regretted" the attempts to alter pre-war demographic composition and called for the "rapid development of a timetable to ensure the prompt voluntary return of all refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes."[18]

In May 2006 the Coordinating Council of Georgia’s Government and Abkhaz separatists was convened for the first time since 2001.[15] In late July the 2006 Kodori crisis erupted, resulting in the establishment of the de jure Government of Abkhazia in Kodori. For the first time after the war, this government is located in Abkhazia, and is headed by Malkhaz Akishbaia, Temur Mzhavia and Ada Marshania.[16]

[14] While at a

The new Georgian government of President Mikheil Saakashvili promised not to use force and to resolve the problem only by diplomacy and political talks.[14]

Saakashvili era

In September 2001, around 400 Chechen fighters and 80 Georgian guerrillas appeared in the Kodori Valley in extremely controversial conditions. The Chechen-Georgian paramilitaries advanced as far as Sukhumi, but finally were repelled by Abkhaz and Gudauta based Russian peacekeepers.

In April–May 1998, the conflict escalated once again in the Gali District when several hundred Abkhaz forces entered the villages still populated by Georgians to support the separatist-held parliamentary elections. Despite criticism from the opposition, Eduard Shevardnadze, ceasefire was negotiated on May 20. The hostilities resulted in hundreds of casualties from both sides and an additional 20,000 Georgian refugees.

Resumption of hostilities

The conflict involved a 13-month-long War in Abkhazia, beginning in August 1992, with Georgian government forces and a militia composed of ethnic Georgians who lived in Abkhazia on one side and Russian-backed separatist forces consisting of ethnic Abkhazians, Armenians and Russians who also lived in Abkhazia on the other side. The separatists were supported by the North Caucasian and Cossack militants and (unofficially) by Russian forces stationed in Gudauta. The conflict resulted in an agreement in Sochi to cease hostilities, however, this would not last.

War in Abkhazia

[13] Manifestations demanding secession from the Georgian SSR and inclusion into the

In the Soviet era Abkhazia was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Abkhazian ASSR), an entity within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR)[9]

Soviet era



  • Events 1
    • Soviet era 1.1
    • War in Abkhazia 1.2
    • Resumption of hostilities 1.3
    • Saakashvili era 1.4
    • August 2008 1.5
    • After the war 1.6
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5

[8] has passed a series of resolutions in which it appeals for a cease-fire.UN Security Council The [7] GA/10708 also mentions.UN General Assembly Resolution which [6]

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