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Title: Bicosoecid  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cafeteria roenbergensis, Ambiregnal protists, Heterokonts, Nomenclature codes, Heterokont
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Bicosoeca cell scheme:
1. anterior flagellum,
2. phagosomes,
3. cytostome,
4. nucleus,
5. lorica,
6. posterior flagellum
Cafeteria roenbergensis, a non-loricate bicosoecid
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): SAR
Division: Heterokontophyta
Order: Bicosoecida
Honigberg et al., 1964, Zhukov, 1978, Karpov, 1998, 2000

Bicosoeca James-Clark, 1866[1]
(= Bikoeca Stein, 1878;[2] Bicoeca Senn, 1900[3])

  • Bikoecida Stein, 1878
  • Bicoecinae Grassé, 1926[4]
  • Bicoecidea Grassé & Deflandre in Grassé, 1952[5]
  • Bicosoecales Bourrelly, 1968, 1981
  • Bicoecales Kristiansen, 1972[6]
  • Bicosoecophyceae Casper, 1974, Loeblich III & Loeblich 1979[7]
  • Bicosoecea Cavalier-Smith, 1986
  • Bicoecia Cavalier-Smith, 1989
  • Bicoecea Cavalier-Smith, 1993
  • Bicocoecida van den Hoek et al., 1995
  • Bikosea Cavalier-Smith 2013

The bicosoecids, formally Bicosoecida (ICZN) or Bicosoecales/Bicoecea (ICBN), are a small group of unicellular flagellates, included among the heterokonts. The cells are free-living, with no chloroplasts, and in some genera are encased in a lorica.

The name of the type genus Bicosoeca described by James-Clark in 1867 is derived from Greek roots (bikos, vase, bowl, plus oekein, inhabit). The philologically preferable compound would be Bicoeca, as "corrected" by Stein in 1878 and followed by most subsequent authors. However, according to the ICBN and ICZN, the original spelling of the name cannot be considered incorrect and it must be used in its original form.

The group was formerly considered to be related to the Chrysophyceae.[8]

Some authors use the vernacular term "bicosoecid" (or "bicoecid") in a narrower sense, only for Bicosoeca, aplying "bicoeceans" to Bicosoeca and related groups like Cafeteria.[9]

External links


  • Hibberd, D. J. (1986). Ultrastructure of the Chrysophyceae. Colorless forms. p. 29-30 In: Chrysophytes: Aspects and Problems. Kristiansen, J. and R.A. Andersen [Eds.]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


  1. ^ James-Clark, H. (1868). , Bowerbank.Leucosolenia botryoidesOn the Spongia Ciliatae as Infusoria Flagellata; or, observations on the structure, animality, and relationship of Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1 (3): 305-340. Also published in the Proceedings of this Society in June 20, 1866 (vol. 11, p. 15), in the American Journal of Science in November 1866, in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History in January 1867, and in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History in 1868 (4th ser., vol. 1: 133-142, 188–215, 250–264).
  2. ^ Stein, F. R. (1878). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere, vol . 3, part 1. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  3. ^ Senn, G. (1900). Flagellata. In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (eds.), 1887–1915. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien [...]. Teil I, Abt 1a. W. Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 93–188, figs. 63–140, [1].
  4. ^ Grassé, P.-P. Contribution à l'étude des flagellés parasites. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale, t. 65, 1926, pp. 345-602 [576], disponible at Gallica.
  5. ^ Grassé, P.-P. & Deflandre, G . (1952). Ordre des Bicoecidea. In: Grassé, P.-P. (Ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Vol. 1, fasc. 1. Phylogénie. Protozoaries: Generalités, Flagellés. Masson et Cie, Paris. 599-601.
  6. ^ Jørgen Kristiansen. (1972). , with remarks on the taxonomic position of the Bicoecales.Bicoeca crystallinaStructure and occurrence of British Phycological Journal, 7:1, 1-12
  7. ^ Loeblich, A. R., III and L. A. Loeblich. 1979. Division Chrysophyta, pp. 411-423. In: CRC Handbook of Microbiology, 2nd ed., vol. 2, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Viruses, ed. by A. I.Laskin and H. A. Lechevalier, CRC Press, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL.
  8. ^ David J. Hibberd (1978) sp. nov., a flagellate accumulating extraneous silica fragmentsBicosoeca accreta, British Phycological Journal, 13:2, 161-166.
  9. ^ Supplementary material [2].

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