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Parya language

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Title: Parya language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hindi literature, Hindi languages, HindiUSA, Bundeli language, Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages
Collection: Hindi Languages, Indo-Aryan Languages, Languages of Tajikistan, Languages of Uzbekistan
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Parya language

Native to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan
Region Gissar Valley, Surkhandarya basin
Native speakers
4,000  (2008)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 paq
Glottolog pary1242[2]

Parya (Russian: Парья язык) is a Central Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Tajuzbeki (or Tadj-Uzbeki) was an alternative name coined by Bholanath Tivari for the same language. Much of the academic research in documenting and characterizing this Indo-Aryan isolate language was done by prominent Soviet linguist I. M. Oranski.


  • Region and Genealogy 1
  • Vigesimal counting 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Region and Genealogy

Parya is largely spoken in the border regions between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, specifically in the towns of Hisor, Shahrinav, Regar/Tursunzoda and Surchi, located in the Hissor Valley of Tajikistan and the Surkhondaryo basin of Uzbekistan. It is based on the Braj, Hariyani and Rajasthani dialects, and is highly influenced by Uzbek, Tajik and Russian languages.[3][4]

There are about 2,500 speakers worldwide. Parya speakers are usually bilingual in Tajik, but tend to exclusively use Parya at home.[5]

Vigesimal counting

Parya employs some vigesimal numeral counting patterns, though the base words used are Hindi.[6][7]

English Parya Hindi Hindi root words
One Jek Aik
Two Du Do
Three Tin Teen
Four Tshar Char
Five Pandzh Panch
Ten Dus Dus
Twenty Bis Bis
Seventy Sare teen bisi Sattar Sare-teen = three and a half; bees = twenty
Ninety Sare chaar bisi Nabbey Sare-chaar = four and a half; bees = twenty


  1. ^ Parya at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Parya". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Bholanath Tivari, "Soviet Sangh mein boli jane vali Hindi boli: Tajuzbeki : Aitihasik aur tulanatmak adhyayan tatha sankshipt shabdkosh" or "Tajuzbeki: The Hindi of the Soviet Union: A historical and comparative study, and glossary", National Publishing House, 1970
  4. ^ Tatiana Oranskaia, "Parya yazyk", Yazyki Rossiyskoy Federatsii i sosednix gosudarstv. Entsiklopediya. V tryox tomax. II K-R. Moskva: "Nauka"; 2001
  5. ^ Barbara F. Grimes, Richard Saunders Pittman, Joseph Evans Grimes, "Ethnologue: Languages of the World", Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1996; ISBN 0-88312-815-2, ISBN 978-0-88312-815-2
  6. ^ Jadranka Gvozdanović, "Numeral types and changes worldwide", Walter de Gruyter, 1999; ISBN 3-11-016113-3, ISBN 978-3-11-016113-7
  7. ^ Iosef Mikhailovich Oranski, "Dva indoariyski dialekta iz Srednei Azii", Indiyskaya i Iranskaya Filologiya; Institut Narodov Azii, Nauka, 1964.

External links

  • The Indo-Aryan languages - a tour
  • Parya numerals

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