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Cafeteria roenbergensis

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Title: Cafeteria roenbergensis  
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Cafeteria roenbergensis

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|- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Cafeteria roenbergensis |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | |-

|- colspan=2 style="text-align: center"

|- |- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Scientific classification |-

| Species: | C. roenbergensis |-


|- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Binomial name |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Cafeteria roenbergensis
Fenchel & Patterson, 1988[1] |- style="text-align: center"













Cafeteria roenbergensis is a small bacterivorous marine flagellate. It was discovered by Danish marine ecologist Tom Fenchel and taxonomist David Patterson in 1988. It is in one of three genera of bicoecids, and the first discovered of two known Cafeteria species. Bicosoecids belong to a broad group that also includes opalinids, diatom, brown and golden algae and oomycetes, known as Heterokonta. It is found primarily in coastal waters where there are high concentrations of bacteria on which it grazes. Its voracious appetite plays a significant role in regulating bacteria populations.[2]


  • Physiology 1
  • Behavior 2
  • Ecology 3
    • Habitat 3.1
    • Virus 3.2
  • Taxonomy 4
    • Name 4.1
  • Mitochondrial Genome 5
  • Culture 6
  • References 7


Cafeteria roenbergensis is a slightly flattened, kidney-shaped mitochondria and nuclei.[3]

Cafeteria roenbergensis reproduces asexually via binary fission,[3] first replicating the flagella and internal organelles before the cell divides. No sexual activity is known for this species. Cells can replicate in under 10 hours.


Cafeteria roenbergensis is a suspension feeder, meaning it feeds by filtering suspended bacteria, its primary food source, and other particulate matter from the water.[4] Its two

  1. ^ Fenchel, T., Patterson, D. J. (1988). Cafeteria roenbergensis nov. gen., nov. sp., a heterotrophic microflagellate from marine plankton. Marine Microbial Food Webs, 3, 9–19, [1].
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ a b c
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T., Chatton, Moestrup, T. Fenchel, D. J. Patterson, and Larsen. "Taxonomy Browser : Algaebase." Algaebase :: Listing the World's Algae. Algae Base. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. .
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T., Chatton, Moestrup, T. Fenchel, D. J. Patterson, and Larsen. "Taxonomy Browser : Algaebase." Algaebase :: Listing the World's Algae. Algae Base. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. .
  11. ^
  12. ^ Patterson, David J. "Cafeteria roenbergensis." Encyclopedia of Life. Web. 9 Jan. 2012.
  13. ^ O'Kelly, C. J., B. F. Lang, and G. Burger. "Cafeteria roenbergensis –Mitochondrial Genome Organization ..." Evolutionary & Integrative Genomics. University of Montreal. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. .
  14. ^


Because they are easy to grow in culture, Cafeteria roenbergensis has been subject to a diversity of more detailed studies, such as genomic and ecological studies that have revealed that this species has the most functionally compact DNA amongst eukaryotes.[2] While in culture, Cafeteria are fed Vibrio bacteria. In a test conducted by Park and Simpson in 2010, it was found that Cafeteria cells grow best in salinities of 3 ppm to 100 ppm, but cannot survive at concentrations any higher.[14]


Cafeteria roenbergensis is unique amongst eukaryotes because it has a highly compact mitochondrial genome that includes less than 3.4% introns. Some sources hold that its mitochondrial genome contains no introns at all.[12] The mitochondrial translation code in C. roenbergensis is not standard in comparison to its closest known relatives, Phytophthora infestans and Ochromonas danica. Instead of acting as a stop codon, in Cafeteria, UGA codes for tryptophan.[13]

Mitochondrial Genome

Marine biologist Tom Fenchel, one of the two species authorities who first described C. roenbergensis, is credited with having joked about the chromalveolate's name: "We found a new species of ciliate during a marine field course in Rønbjerg and named it Cafeteria roenbergensis because of its voracious and indiscriminate appetite after many dinner discussions in the local cafeteria." —Tom Fenchel[11]


Cafeteria is categorized in a group called the “Heterotrophic group”. It has one other known species in its genus, Cafeteria minuta, which was found living in tropical marine sediments by Larsen and Patterson in 1990.[10]


[4] known as [9],C. roenbergensis The giant virus that lives within


Cafeteria roenbergensis has been found in all ocean waters examined, but the highest numbers have been found in coastal waters.[2] Ishigaki and Sleigh (2001) found that C. roenbergensis ceased to reproduce when the concentration of bacteria that they were grazing on became less than 2.0×107 cells ml−1.[8] Other flagellates were able to multiply at much lower bacterial concentrations, indicating that bacterial concentration is a limiting factor for Cafeteria. Flagellates have varying abilities to gather bacteria to their mouths with their flagella, and this study suggests that the abilities of Cafeteria species may be inferior to other flagellates, since Cafeteria are usually specific to niches with high concentrations of bacteria.[4]


Bacterivorous nanoflagellates, the general group to which C. roenbergensis belongs, make up a significant portion of the oceans’ protozoan communities, as well as those in freshwater, soils and other habitats. They are reported to be the primary consumer of bacteria in many habitats, controlling bacterial populations as they "graze".[7]

Cafeteria roenbergensis has been found in all oceans examined, but is especially common in coastal waters.[2] These protists occur in a type of biosphere known as "microbial assemblages". This means that they are present at such low abundances, that they are not easily detected, and can only be retrieved and isolated using specialized isolation techniques such as flow cytometry.[6]


and also support the mouth region. skeleton The flagella are anchored by 'rootlets' ribbons and subcellular ropes. They act as a [5]

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