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Spatial planning


Spatial planning

The graphical scheme of the Detailed Urbanist Plan for a settlement within the Municipality of Aerodrom in the City of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the public sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. Discrete professional disciplines which involve spatial planning include land use, urban, regional, transport and environmental planning. Other related areas are also important, including economic and community planning. Spatial planning takes place on local, regional, national and inter-national levels and often result in the creation of a spatial plan.

There are numerous definitions of spatial planning. One of the earliest definitions comes from the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter[1] (often called the 'Torremolinos Charter'), adopted in 1983 by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT): "Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy."

Numerous planning systems exist around the world. Especially in Northwestern Europe spatial planning has evolved greatly since the late 1950s.


  • Spatial planning systems in Europe 1
  • European spatial planning 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Spatial planning systems in Europe

Various compendia of spatial planning systems can be found. Below is a table showing some of the main sources, the countries covered and the date of publication..

COMmon MINdscapes – COMMIN COST Action on Green Structures and Urban Planning – COST C11 European Spatial Planning Observation Network Project on Governance – ESPON 2.3.2 European Commission, DG-REGIO – EU Compendium European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional/Spatial Planning – CEMAT European Space and Territorial Integration Alternative – ESTIA ISOCARP - International Society of City and Regional Planners – ISOCARP Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport – MLIT Legal Systems for Spatial Planning – LEXALP Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution – RCEP United Nations Economic Commission for Europe – UNECE Vision and Strategies around the Baltic Sea – VASAB
Albania 2000
Armenia 2006 2000
Austria 2007 1997 2008 2008
Belarus 2007 2000
Belgium 2007 1997 2008
Bulgaria 2007 2003 2000 2008
Cyprus 2007
Czech Republic 2007 2008
Denmark 2007 2005 2007 1997 2008 2000
Estonia 2007 2007 2008 2000
Finland 2007 2005 2007 1997 2005 2008 2000
France 2005 2007 1997 2008 2007 2008 2000
Georgia 2003
Germany 2007 2005 2007 1997 2008 2007 2008 2000 2000
Greece 2007 1997 2000 2008
Hungary 2007 2000 2008
Ireland 2007 1997 2008 2000
Italy 2005 2007 1997 2008 2008
Latvia 2007 2007 1998 2000
Lithuania 2007 2007 1998 2000
Luxembourg 2007 1997 2006 2008
Macedonia 2000 2002
Malta 2007
Netherlands 2005 2007 1997 2008 2007 2000
Norway 2007 2005 2007 2008 2000
Poland 2007 2005 2007 2008 2000
Portugal 2007 1997 2004 2008
Romania 2007 2000 2001
Russian Federation 2007 2008 2000
Serbia 2000 2008 2007
Slovakia 2007 2008
Slovenia 2007 2003 2008 1997
Spain 2005 2007 1997 2008
Sweden 2007 2005 2007 1997 2008 2000 2000
Switzerland 2007 2008 2008
Turkey 2008
United Kingdom 2005 2007 1997 2008 2007 2000

European spatial planning

In 1999, a document called the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) was signed by the ministers responsible for regional planning in the EU member states. Although the ESDP has no binding status, and the European Union has no formal authority for spatial planning, the ESDP has influenced spatial planning policy in European regions and member states, and placed the coordination of EU sectoral policies on the political agenda.

At the European level, the term territorial cohesion is becoming more widely used and is for example mentioned in the draft EU Treaty (Constitution) as a shared competency of the European Union; it is also included in the Treaty of Lisbon. The term was defined in a "scoping document" in Rotterdam in late 2004 and is being elaborated further using empirical data from the ESPON programme[2] in a document entitled "The Territorial State and Perspectives of the European Union".[3] At the minister's conference in May 2007 in Leipzig, a political document called the "Territorial Agenda" was signed to continue the process begun in Rotterdam, revised in May 2011 in Godollo.

See also


  1. ^ "Council of Europe". Council of Europe. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  2. ^ "". Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  3. ^ "Microsoft Word - TSP-First-Draft-as-of-260606.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  • Andreas Faludi, Bas Waterhout, The Making of the European Spatial Development Perspective, London Routledge 2002. ISBN 978-0-415-27264-3.
  • Gerhard Larsson, Spatial Planning Systems in Western Europe - An Overview, Delft Univ Press (2006), ISBN 978-1-58603-656-0.[1]
  • Gerhard Larsson, Land management as Public Policy, University Press of America (2010), ISBN 978-0-7618-5248-3. [2]
  • UNECE, Spatial Planning - Key Instrument for Development and Effective Governance with Special Reference to Countries in Transition, Report ECE/HBP/146, Geneva UNECE 2008.
  • Richard H. Williams, European union spatial policy and planning, London Chapman 1996. ISBN 978-1-85396-305-6.

External links

  • CEMAT - European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning
  • EJSD - European Journal of Spatial Development
  • ESPON - European Observation Network on Territorial Development and Cohesion
  • Planum - The European Journal of Planning
  • VASAB - Baltic Sea Region Spatial Planning Initiative VASAB
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