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Deductive Reasoning (X) Social Sciences (X)

       
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Principles of Anarchism

By: Tim Parise

...Taking an unusual approach to its topic, “Principles of Anarchism” applies classical logic and deductive reasoning to the subject of human interactions and rights. Beginning with the assumption that all human beings are equal, a concept which is termed the human equality axiom, the author goes on to draw a number of c...

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Study in Scarlet, A

By: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

...rs. In his first adventure, Holmes demonstrates many of the traits for which he later became well known: meticulous study of a crime scene, brilliant deductive reasoning, aptitude for chemistry and music, and the somewhat annoying habit of withholding crucial facts from Watson (and consequently the reader) until the conclusion of the case. (Summary by Laurie Anne Walden)...

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The Conundrums of Psychology

By: Sam Vaknin

... impulses without any remarkable disorder or defect of the intellect or knowing or reasoning faculties and in particular without any insane delusio... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...usally. Psychoanalysis is about Verstehen, not about Erklaren. It is a hypothetico-deductive method for gleaning events in a person's life and gene...

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The Marketing of Ideas and Social Issues

By: Seymour Fine

...re, guess, hypothesis and (in elaborate cases) theory. 2. The idea is subjected to reasoning, defined as The process of developing … the implicatio... ...any idea with respect to any problem … As an idea is inferred from given facts, so reasoning sets out from an idea. 13 The state of the observe... ...ideas initially inferred are very tentative, wild conjectures, remote suggestions; reasoning is required to shape ideas into beliefs and conclusions... ...nd draws a conclusion by corroborating, or verifying the conjectured idea. The reasoning process is a two-way movement from partial, fragmentary ... ...discovery or inference of principles based on observed facts. The upward paths are deductive movements in search of verification of those principles... ...eference to the observations. A simple illustration of the process is seen in the reasoning of a pipe smoker who is contemplating the idea to cut o... ...sophers prefer inductive reasoning while physicists and mathematicians lean toward deductive methods. Medical practitioners use diagnosis and attor...

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Cyclopedia of Economics

By: Sam Vaknin

... injustice in the distribution of wealth or love – we become angry because of moral reasoning, whether the injustice was deliberate or not. We retal... ... as a result of our ability to morally reason and to get even. Sometimes even moral reasoning is lacking, as in when we simply wish to alleviate a d... ...se to have authored it. It must have been an entity capable of thinking, analysing, reasoning, theorizing and predicting in the deepest senses of th... ...ped into three moral levels... At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles tha... ... available to reason and intellect. Sometimes, the boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yield the same resul... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate...

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Cyclopedia of Philosophy

By: Sam Vaknin

... injustice in the distribution of wealth or love – we become angry because of moral reasoning, whether the injustice was deliberate or not. We retal... ... as a result of our ability to morally reason and to get even. Sometimes even moral reasoning is lacking, as in when we simply wish to alleviate a d... ...se to have authored it. It must have been an entity capable of thinking, analysing, reasoning, theorizing and predicting in the deepest senses of th... ...ped into three moral levels... At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles tha... ... available to reason and intellect. Sometimes, the boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yield the same resul... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate...

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The Doctors Dilemma: Preface on Doctors

By: George Bernard Shaw

...ed in practically unlimited quantity and intensity, without observation or reasoning, and even in defiance of both, by the simple desire to believe fo... ...ysis involves no destruction. After such triumphs of humane experiment and reasoning, it is useless to assure us that there is no other key to knowled... ...tled by hysterical protestations, and that if the vivisec- tionist rejects deductive reasoning, he had better clear his character by his own favorite ... ...sterical protestations, and that if the vivisec- tionist rejects deductive reasoning, he had better clear his character by his own favorite method of ...

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Autobiography

By: John Stuart Mill

...hat I could ever feel any curiosity about my first attempts at writing and reasoning. My father encour aged me in this useful amusement, though, as I... ...ogues ; and I was rather recalcitrant to my father’s criticisms of the bad reasoning respecting the first principles of physics, which abounds in the ... ...sup port the opposite conclusion, scarcely even attempting to confute the reasonings of their antagonists; and, therefore, at the utmost, leaving the... ... was the chap ter in which Bentham passed judgment on the common modes of reasoning in morals and legislation, deduced from phrases like “law of natu... ... when combined. I then asked myself, what is the ultimate analysis of this deductive process; the com mon theory of the syllogism evidently throwing ... ...spect to the philoso phy of politics. I now saw, that a science is either deductive or experimental, according as, in the province it deals with, the... ...ce when separate. 93 John Stuart Mill It followed that politics must be a deductive science. It thus appeared, that both Macaulay and my father were ... ...erimental method of chemistry; while the other, though right in adopting a deductive method, had made a wrong selection of one, having taken as the ty... ...y leading conception for which I am indebted to him is that of the Inverse Deductive Method, as the one chiefly applicable to the complicated subjects...

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Democracy and Education

By: John Dewey

...bits involved are not of a high grade. But there are habits of judging and reasoning as truly as of handling a tool, painting a picture, or conducting... ...e degree in which his preferences modify the stuff of his observations and reasonings. There is, however, no incompatibility between the fact that the... ...zed and the implications of the hypoth- esis developed—an operation called reasoning. Then the suggested solution—the idea or theory—has to be tested ... ...ration is more typical of the right way of knowledge than isolated logical reasonings. Experiment developed in the seventeenth and succeeding centurie... ...tory exercises, while a great improvement upon textbooks arranged upon the deductive plan, do not of themselves suffice to meet the need. While they a... ...d Latin composition comes first and English composition next; for abstract reasoning, mathematics stands almost alone; for concrete reason- ing, scien... ... instead of with the concrete; the scorn of particulars except as they are deductively brought under a universal; the disregard for the body; the depr... ...s called the substitution of inductive experimental methods of knowing for deductive. In some sense, men had always used an inductive method in deal- ...

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The Works of Edgar Allan Poe in Five Volumes Volume Four

By: Edgar Allan Poe

...Oh, tempora! Oh, Moses!” Why, the fel- low is all O! That accounts for his reasoning in a circle, and explains why there is neither beginning nor end ... ...e. This person introduced, or at all events propagated what was termed the deductive or a priori mode of investigation. He started with what he mainta... ...qually bizarre. Of late years however, an anonymous writer, by a course of reasoning exceedingly unphilosophical, has con- trived to blunder upon a pl... ...emselves. It was not, and could not have been, arrived at by any inductive reasoning. In whatever way the shifting is managed, it is of course conceal...

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An Englishman Looks at the World Being a Series of Unrestrained Remarks Upon Contemporary Matters

By: H. G. Wells

...ovel and short story are two en- tirely different things, and the train of reasoning that made the American master limit the short story to about an h... ...- perimental spirit, which has small respect for abstract prin- ciples and deductive rules. W e perceive more and more clearly , for example, that the... ... Pro- fessor Bosanquet, for example, in Alfred Sidgwick’s “Use of Words in Reasoning,” in Sigwart’s “Logic,” in contemporary American metaphysical spe...

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