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Principles of Anarchism

By: Tim Parise

...Taking an unusual approach to its topic, “Principles of Anarchism” applies classical logic and deductive reasoning to the subject of human interactions and rights. Beginning with the assumption that all human beings are equal, a concept which is termed the human equality axiom, the author goes on to draw a number of c...

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Principles of Anarchism

By: Tim Parise

...Taking an unusual approach to its topic, “Principles of Anarchism” applies classical logic and deductive reasoning to the subject of human interactions and rights. Beginning with the assumption that all human beings are equal, a concept which is termed the human equality axiom, the author goes on to draw a number of c...

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Secret of the Night, The

By: Gaston Leroux

... is most likely that Leroux styled his hero after himself. Rouletabille was in the tradition of other great detectives who solved their cases by pure deductive reasoning. Much as Sherlock Holmes, who eliminated the impossible and concluded that whatever remained, however improbable must be the truth, Rouletabille included the known facts about the case and eliminated every...

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Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The (version 3)

By: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

...h Holmes displays as he teases apart the tangled clues. Packaged as twelve distinct cases, by the end of this book your own senses of observation and deductive reasoning should be improved. It's easy to see why this book became a model for detective yarns! (Summary by Mark F. Smith)...

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Study in Scarlet, A

By: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

...rs. In his first adventure, Holmes demonstrates many of the traits for which he later became well known: meticulous study of a crime scene, brilliant deductive reasoning, aptitude for chemistry and music, and the somewhat annoying habit of withholding crucial facts from Watson (and consequently the reader) until the conclusion of the case. (Summary by Laurie Anne Walden)...

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The Ulysseans

By: Antonio Mercurio

... until now has been able to imagine. The other philosophers are capable of reasoning only in a linear fashion, whereas I, instead, have learned to r... ... it affirms that the line is an absolute. I have no doubt that this brief reasoning can clear the mind of philosophers and scientists from their un... ...a single cause. If instead I recognize that they cannot exist, through the reasoning 96 demonstrated here, I must recognize that this is false. It... ...urselves that God is round and not flat. I have no doubt that this brief reasoning can clear the mind of philosophers and scientists from their un... ...ve formulated it, though, in the form of a theorem, which is the result of reasoning. This means that I have tried to put together intuition and reas... ...ativity. The type of reasoning we will be using in our case will not be deductive or inductive reasoning. We instead will use reasoning by analog...

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Neutrality and Many-Valued Logics

By: Florentin Smarandache; Andrew Schumann

...sophic, etc. We survey also results which show the tree different proof-theoretic frameworks for many-valued logics, e.g. frameworks of the following deductive calculi: Hilbert ’s style, sequent, and hypersequent. Recall that hypersequents are a natural generalization of Gentzen ’s style sequents that was introduced independently by Avron and Pottinger . In particular, we...

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Proceedings of the First International Conference on Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Logic, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability and Statistics

By: Florentin Smarandache

...neutrosophic statistics. This representation is closer to the human mind reasoning. It characterizes/catches the imprecision of knowledge or ... ...egy, classifier system, genetic programming. Pei Wang devised a Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System as an intelligent reasoning system, where intelligen... ...be employed as well to determine a best algorithm of inference. Non-monotonic reasoning means to make assumptions about things we don’t know. Heuri... ...itas Press, New York, 1961. [45] Zadeh, Lotfi A., Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning, Synthese, 30, 407-428, 1975. [46] Zadeh, Lotfi A., Revi... ...arandache’slogic as foundations for a new general unifying theory for uncertain reasoning is becoming both a new philosophical and mathematical resear... ...s eds., Hafner, pp. 131 153, 1970). [5] Bianaghi E., Madella P .,“Inductive and Deductive Reasoning techniques for Fuzzy Dempster Shafer Classifiers”, ...

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Speculations and Physics

By: Sam Vaknin, Ph. D.

...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ... scientific activity. Alleged connections that cannot be captured in these nets of reasoning are cast out either as "hypothetical" or as "false". I... ...erse is partial to life, not indifferent to it. All four are forms of teleological reasoning (that nature has a purpose) masquerading as eutaxiolog... ...ical accounts are possible. What happens when we try to apply the same teleological reasoning to the system as a whole, to the Universe itself? In t... ...h as the electron or dark matter) derive their meaning from their place in complex deductive systems of empirically-testable theorems. Ethicists re... ... have been the first to offer this simplistic formulation of the Logical (a-priori, deductive) Problem of Evil, later expounded on by David Hume in ...

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The Conundrums of Psychology

By: Sam Vaknin

... impulses without any remarkable disorder or defect of the intellect or knowing or reasoning faculties and in particular without any insane delusio... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...usally. Psychoanalysis is about Verstehen, not about Erklaren. It is a hypothetico-deductive method for gleaning events in a person's life and gene...

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A Unifying Field in Logics : Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability

By: Florentin Smarandache

...trosophic statistics. This representation is closer to the human mind reasoning. It characterizes/catches the imprecision of knowledge or lingu... ... 1 + 0. The atom's structure holds in the history of any idea. The reasoning is based upon the analysis of positive, negative, and neutral pr... ...d in itself, and action, and movement, and general theory, and process of reasoning. This approach differs from neutrosophism, which is a point of v... ...} – which occurs in rare/absolute exceptions, by means of formal rules of reasoning of this neutrosophic philosophy. The logical cogitation's ... ...from two different sources. Belief function is a connection between fuzzy reasoning and probability. The Dempster- Shafer Theory of Belief Functions ... ... A formal system comprises a formal language (alphabet and grammar) and a deductive apparatus (axioms and/or rules of inference). In a formal syste...

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The Marketing of Ideas and Social Issues

By: Seymour Fine

...re, guess, hypothesis and (in elaborate cases) theory. 2. The idea is subjected to reasoning, defined as The process of developing … the implicatio... ...any idea with respect to any problem … As an idea is inferred from given facts, so reasoning sets out from an idea. 13 The state of the observe... ...ideas initially inferred are very tentative, wild conjectures, remote suggestions; reasoning is required to shape ideas into beliefs and conclusions... ...nd draws a conclusion by corroborating, or verifying the conjectured idea. The reasoning process is a two-way movement from partial, fragmentary ... ...discovery or inference of principles based on observed facts. The upward paths are deductive movements in search of verification of those principles... ...eference to the observations. A simple illustration of the process is seen in the reasoning of a pipe smoker who is contemplating the idea to cut o... ...sophers prefer inductive reasoning while physicists and mathematicians lean toward deductive methods. Medical practitioners use diagnosis and attor...

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Modelling of Rationality...and Beyond the Physics

By: Gh. C. Dinulescu

...ion, to prevailingly develop its intellectual qualities. 11 A similar reasoning leads to the conclusion that an entity with a greater OY section,... ... is not a rigorous method and that even these disciplines can’t reject the deductive method; not mentioning the non-experimental ones. But the dedu... ...hical disciplines, through force of circumstances, the research method is deductive, but what distinguishes these disciplines of the scientific ones ... ...e potential reason, that storing, as an original document of the manifest reasoning , on each monad and it is in turn a premise for the manifest rat...

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Fuzzy Relational Maps and Neutrosophic Relational Maps

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache

... 1.21 Some properties of minimal solution for a FRE 123 1.22 FRE and causal reasoning 126 1.23 Identification of FRE by fuzzy neural networks 13... ...ese generalizations concepts 29 from some applications such as approximate reasoning and fuzzy control. Given a particular t-norm i and two fuz... ...used ways of constructing fuzzy inference systems is the method of approximate reasoning which can be implemented on the basis of compositional rul... ...al rule of inference. Different criteria have been proposed for the approximate reasoning to satisfy relevant conditions. The most useful is that of... ...ral inference system that implements the relational equation of the approximate reasoning and secondly a general neural fuzzy system of arbitrary le... ...which are absent, i.e. all manifestations which are present are observed. While deductive reasoning enables us to predict the presence of manifestat...

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Noi Functii in Teoria Numerelor

By: Florentin Smarandache

... 1.21 Some properties of minimal solution for a FRE 123 1.22 FRE and causal reasoning 126 1.23 Identification of FRE by fuzzy neural networks 13... ...ese generalizations concepts 29 from some applications such as approximate reasoning and fuzzy control. Given a particular t-norm i and two fuz... ...used ways of constructing fuzzy inference systems is the method of approximate reasoning which can be implemented on the basis of compositional rul... ...al rule of inference. Different criteria have been proposed for the approximate reasoning to satisfy relevant conditions. The most useful is that of... ...ral inference system that implements the relational equation of the approximate reasoning and secondly a general neural fuzzy system of arbitrary le... ...which are absent, i.e. all manifestations which are present are observed. While deductive reasoning enables us to predict the presence of manifestat...

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And Gulliver Returns Book I : Touchdown

By: Bob Oconnor

...ur seas of fish? Or has God made us in His image and expects us to use our reasoning to do something about the mess that we have created for oursel... ...Wreck, you’re right about that. I’m going to have to watch my inductive and deductive reasoning and not let them get in the way of my passion. So wha... ...’re right about that. I’m going to have to watch my inductive and deductive reasoning and not let them get in the way of my passion. So what if a per...

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Cyclopedia of Economics

By: Sam Vaknin

... injustice in the distribution of wealth or love – we become angry because of moral reasoning, whether the injustice was deliberate or not. We retal... ... as a result of our ability to morally reason and to get even. Sometimes even moral reasoning is lacking, as in when we simply wish to alleviate a d... ...se to have authored it. It must have been an entity capable of thinking, analysing, reasoning, theorizing and predicting in the deepest senses of th... ...ped into three moral levels... At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles tha... ... available to reason and intellect. Sometimes, the boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yield the same resul... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate...

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Cyclopedia of Philosophy

By: Sam Vaknin

... injustice in the distribution of wealth or love – we become angry because of moral reasoning, whether the injustice was deliberate or not. We retal... ... as a result of our ability to morally reason and to get even. Sometimes even moral reasoning is lacking, as in when we simply wish to alleviate a d... ...se to have authored it. It must have been an entity capable of thinking, analysing, reasoning, theorizing and predicting in the deepest senses of th... ...ped into three moral levels... At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles tha... ... available to reason and intellect. Sometimes, the boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yield the same resul... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate...

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And Gulliver Returns Book IV : A Look at Our Human Values

By: Lemuel Gulliver XVI

......................................................... 207 THE PROCESS OF REASONING .................................................................... ... ―But for those of us who have overcome our traditions through our reasoning and therefore had to eliminate our hopes for celestial longevity... ...ven‘t cited the sources or the methodology of their research, much of the reasoning seems to revolve around the former required atheism of the USSR, ... ... certain loss of personal freedom. So far our citizens have accepted that reasoning and accept a large degree of totalitarian control. You cringe, C... ...ttered ability to question everything. When your society prevents you from reasoning it is the Grim Reaper burying progress. When you stop questionin... ...cessary, definitions. That is inductive logic. Then we argue according to deductive logic. There are a number of rules for this. What if we wa... ... a more critical view of the evidence and the proper use of inductive and deductive logic we might come a bit closer together. And probably the basic...

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New Life Incognita

By: Gracie C. Mckeever

... found the system more claustrophobic than anything and a hindrance to her deductive reasoning. Kelly dashed across the big street on Eastern Parkway,... ... system more claustrophobic than anything and a hindrance to her deductive reasoning. Kelly dashed across the big street on Eastern Parkway, missed be...

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The Path of Splitness

By: Indrek Pringi

...verse 5 Everyone knows this is not true. By using logical deduction and reasoning, the infinite variations and permutations of differences and... ...g instead of everything. Because of this, its entire accumulation of logical deductive reasoning is suspect. The very fact that the abstract logic ... ...of everything. Because of this, its entire accumulation of logical deductive reasoning is suspect. The very fact that the abstract logic of mathem... ...abysmal lack of writing, and evidence from which modern historians base their reasoning upon. Always seeking the easiest, most convenient explanatio... ...tify your enemy: you can’t fight it. This is the complete hoax of western reasoning and research. If after spending over 1 trillion dollars sea... ...igion, and also the Son of God?… What wonder is it; that this kind of corrupt reasoning is so addictive? Only… you have to very stupid, or very bra...

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Eve and David

By: Honoré de Balzac

...And besides, it is so intolerably long since I saw my wife and child.” The reasoning was plausible enough; Basine gave way, and David went. Petit-Clau... ... despair; and the third the suicide based on logical argument. Despair and deductive reasoning had brought Lucien to this pass, but both varieties are... ...and the third the suicide based on logical argument. Despair and deductive reasoning had brought Lucien to this pass, but both varieties are curable; ... ...for laying out a good deal of money.” David was completely floored by this reasoning. Practical 168 Eve and David wisdom spoke in matter-of-fact lang...

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My Bondage and My Freedom by Frederick Douglass. With an Introduction. By James M'Cune Smith

By: Frederick Douglas

...st the schools might have trained him to the exhibition of the formulas of deductive logic, nature and circumstances forced him into the exercise of t... ...ithout any showy display of logic on his part, requires an exercise of the reasoning faculties of the reader to keep pace with him. And his “Claims of... ...uld she give herself any concern? She has no re- sponsibility. Such is the reasoning, and such the practice. The iron rule of the plantation, always p... ... arrived at this clear right. The reader will get some idea of my train of reasoning, by a brief statement of the case. “I am,” thought I, “not only t... ...hich is endangered by such causes. I do not dis- pute the soundness of the reasoning. It is perfectly sound; and, if slavery be right, Sabbath schools...

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Autobiography

By: John Stuart Mill

...hat I could ever feel any curiosity about my first attempts at writing and reasoning. My father encour aged me in this useful amusement, though, as I... ...ogues ; and I was rather recalcitrant to my father’s criticisms of the bad reasoning respecting the first principles of physics, which abounds in the ... ...sup port the opposite conclusion, scarcely even attempting to confute the reasonings of their antagonists; and, therefore, at the utmost, leaving the... ... was the chap ter in which Bentham passed judgment on the common modes of reasoning in morals and legislation, deduced from phrases like “law of natu... ... when combined. I then asked myself, what is the ultimate analysis of this deductive process; the com mon theory of the syllogism evidently throwing ... ...spect to the philoso phy of politics. I now saw, that a science is either deductive or experimental, according as, in the province it deals with, the... ...ce when separate. 93 John Stuart Mill It followed that politics must be a deductive science. It thus appeared, that both Macaulay and my father were ... ...erimental method of chemistry; while the other, though right in adopting a deductive method, had made a wrong selection of one, having taken as the ty... ...y leading conception for which I am indebted to him is that of the Inverse Deductive Method, as the one chiefly applicable to the complicated subjects...

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Democracy and Education

By: John Dewey

...bits involved are not of a high grade. But there are habits of judging and reasoning as truly as of handling a tool, painting a picture, or conducting... ...e degree in which his preferences modify the stuff of his observations and reasonings. There is, however, no incompatibility between the fact that the... ...zed and the implications of the hypoth- esis developed—an operation called reasoning. Then the suggested solution—the idea or theory—has to be tested ... ...ration is more typical of the right way of knowledge than isolated logical reasonings. Experiment developed in the seventeenth and succeeding centurie... ...tory exercises, while a great improvement upon textbooks arranged upon the deductive plan, do not of themselves suffice to meet the need. While they a... ...d Latin composition comes first and English composition next; for abstract reasoning, mathematics stands almost alone; for concrete reason- ing, scien... ... instead of with the concrete; the scorn of particulars except as they are deductively brought under a universal; the disregard for the body; the depr... ...s called the substitution of inductive experimental methods of knowing for deductive. In some sense, men had always used an inductive method in deal- ...

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Best of Freshman Writing

By: Suzanne Harper

...o be lit up like a sign on the Las V egas strip, you would not have enough deductive reason- ing skill to think that these might be the correct direc-... ...however, isn’t without faults, according to his wife. Richard uses logical reasoning and Vera relies on mood and feeling when dealing with cer- tain s...

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The Doctors Dilemma: Preface on Doctors

By: George Bernard Shaw

...ed in practically unlimited quantity and intensity, without observation or reasoning, and even in defiance of both, by the simple desire to believe fo... ...ysis involves no destruction. After such triumphs of humane experiment and reasoning, it is useless to assure us that there is no other key to knowled... ...tled by hysterical protestations, and that if the vivisec- tionist rejects deductive reasoning, he had better clear his character by his own favorite ... ...sterical protestations, and that if the vivisec- tionist rejects deductive reasoning, he had better clear his character by his own favorite method of ...

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The Works of Edgar Allan Poe in Five Volumes Volume Four

By: Edgar Allan Poe

...Oh, tempora! Oh, Moses!” Why, the fel- low is all O! That accounts for his reasoning in a circle, and explains why there is neither beginning nor end ... ...e. This person introduced, or at all events propagated what was termed the deductive or a priori mode of investigation. He started with what he mainta... ...qually bizarre. Of late years however, an anonymous writer, by a course of reasoning exceedingly unphilosophical, has con- trived to blunder upon a pl... ...emselves. It was not, and could not have been, arrived at by any inductive reasoning. In whatever way the shifting is managed, it is of course conceal...

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An Englishman Looks at the World Being a Series of Unrestrained Remarks Upon Contemporary Matters

By: H. G. Wells

...ovel and short story are two en- tirely different things, and the train of reasoning that made the American master limit the short story to about an h... ...- perimental spirit, which has small respect for abstract prin- ciples and deductive rules. W e perceive more and more clearly , for example, that the... ... Pro- fessor Bosanquet, for example, in Alfred Sidgwick’s “Use of Words in Reasoning,” in Sigwart’s “Logic,” in contemporary American metaphysical spe...

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