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Deductive Reasoning (X) Education (X)

       
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Neutrality and Many-Valued Logics

By: Florentin Smarandache; Andrew Schumann

...sophic, etc. We survey also results which show the tree different proof-theoretic frameworks for many-valued logics, e.g. frameworks of the following deductive calculi: Hilbert ’s style, sequent, and hypersequent. Recall that hypersequents are a natural generalization of Gentzen ’s style sequents that was introduced independently by Avron and Pottinger . In particular, we...

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Proceedings of the First International Conference on Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Logic, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability and Statistics

By: Florentin Smarandache

...neutrosophic statistics. This representation is closer to the human mind reasoning. It characterizes/catches the imprecision of knowledge or ... ...egy, classifier system, genetic programming. Pei Wang devised a Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System as an intelligent reasoning system, where intelligen... ...be employed as well to determine a best algorithm of inference. Non-monotonic reasoning means to make assumptions about things we don’t know. Heuri... ...itas Press, New York, 1961. [45] Zadeh, Lotfi A., Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning, Synthese, 30, 407-428, 1975. [46] Zadeh, Lotfi A., Revi... ...arandache’slogic as foundations for a new general unifying theory for uncertain reasoning is becoming both a new philosophical and mathematical resear... ...s eds., Hafner, pp. 131 153, 1970). [5] Bianaghi E., Madella P .,“Inductive and Deductive Reasoning techniques for Fuzzy Dempster Shafer Classifiers”, ...

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The Conundrums of Psychology

By: Sam Vaknin

... impulses without any remarkable disorder or defect of the intellect or knowing or reasoning faculties and in particular without any insane delusio... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...usally. Psychoanalysis is about Verstehen, not about Erklaren. It is a hypothetico-deductive method for gleaning events in a person's life and gene...

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The Marketing of Ideas and Social Issues

By: Seymour Fine

...re, guess, hypothesis and (in elaborate cases) theory. 2. The idea is subjected to reasoning, defined as The process of developing … the implicatio... ...any idea with respect to any problem … As an idea is inferred from given facts, so reasoning sets out from an idea. 13 The state of the observe... ...ideas initially inferred are very tentative, wild conjectures, remote suggestions; reasoning is required to shape ideas into beliefs and conclusions... ...nd draws a conclusion by corroborating, or verifying the conjectured idea. The reasoning process is a two-way movement from partial, fragmentary ... ...discovery or inference of principles based on observed facts. The upward paths are deductive movements in search of verification of those principles... ...eference to the observations. A simple illustration of the process is seen in the reasoning of a pipe smoker who is contemplating the idea to cut o... ...sophers prefer inductive reasoning while physicists and mathematicians lean toward deductive methods. Medical practitioners use diagnosis and attor...

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Modelling of Rationality...and Beyond the Physics

By: Gh. C. Dinulescu

...ion, to prevailingly develop its intellectual qualities. 11 A similar reasoning leads to the conclusion that an entity with a greater OY section,... ... is not a rigorous method and that even these disciplines can’t reject the deductive method; not mentioning the non-experimental ones. But the dedu... ...hical disciplines, through force of circumstances, the research method is deductive, but what distinguishes these disciplines of the scientific ones ... ...e potential reason, that storing, as an original document of the manifest reasoning , on each monad and it is in turn a premise for the manifest rat...

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Fuzzy Relational Maps and Neutrosophic Relational Maps

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache

... 1.21 Some properties of minimal solution for a FRE 123 1.22 FRE and causal reasoning 126 1.23 Identification of FRE by fuzzy neural networks 13... ...ese generalizations concepts 29 from some applications such as approximate reasoning and fuzzy control. Given a particular t-norm i and two fuz... ...used ways of constructing fuzzy inference systems is the method of approximate reasoning which can be implemented on the basis of compositional rul... ...al rule of inference. Different criteria have been proposed for the approximate reasoning to satisfy relevant conditions. The most useful is that of... ...ral inference system that implements the relational equation of the approximate reasoning and secondly a general neural fuzzy system of arbitrary le... ...which are absent, i.e. all manifestations which are present are observed. While deductive reasoning enables us to predict the presence of manifestat...

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Cyclopedia of Economics

By: Sam Vaknin

... injustice in the distribution of wealth or love – we become angry because of moral reasoning, whether the injustice was deliberate or not. We retal... ... as a result of our ability to morally reason and to get even. Sometimes even moral reasoning is lacking, as in when we simply wish to alleviate a d... ...se to have authored it. It must have been an entity capable of thinking, analysing, reasoning, theorizing and predicting in the deepest senses of th... ...ped into three moral levels... At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles tha... ... available to reason and intellect. Sometimes, the boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yield the same resul... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate...

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The Path of Splitness

By: Indrek Pringi

...verse 5 Everyone knows this is not true. By using logical deduction and reasoning, the infinite variations and permutations of differences and... ...g instead of everything. Because of this, its entire accumulation of logical deductive reasoning is suspect. The very fact that the abstract logic ... ...of everything. Because of this, its entire accumulation of logical deductive reasoning is suspect. The very fact that the abstract logic of mathem... ...abysmal lack of writing, and evidence from which modern historians base their reasoning upon. Always seeking the easiest, most convenient explanatio... ...tify your enemy: you can’t fight it. This is the complete hoax of western reasoning and research. If after spending over 1 trillion dollars sea... ...igion, and also the Son of God?… What wonder is it; that this kind of corrupt reasoning is so addictive? Only… you have to very stupid, or very bra...

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