Unfolding the Labyrinth : Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and Other Areas of Science | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online

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Smarandache, F. (2013). Unfolding the Labyrinth : Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and Other Areas of Science. Retrieved from http://gutenberg.us/

Description
Progress and development in our knowledge of the structure, form and function of the Universe, in the true sense of the word, its beauty and power, and its timeless presence and mystery, before which even the greatest intellect is awed and humbled, can spring forth only from an unshackled mind combined with a willingness to imagine beyond the boundaries imposed by that ossified authority by which science inevitably becomes, as history teaches us, barren and decrepit.
Revealing the secrets of Nature, so that we truly see ‘the sunlit plains extended, and at night the wondrous glory of the everlasting stars’*, requires far more than mere technical ability and mechanical dexterity learnt from books and consensus. The dustbin of scientific history is replete with discredited consensus and the grand reputations of erudite reactionaries. Only by boldly asking questions, fearlessly, despite opposition, and searching for answers where most have not looked for want of courage and independence of thought, can one hope to discover for one’s self. From nothing else can creativity blossom and grow, and without which the garden of science can only aspire to an overpopulation of weeds.

Summary
The reader will find herein a collection of unsolved problems in mathematics and the physical sciences. Theoretical and experimental domains have each been given consideration. The authors have taken a liberal approach in their selection of problems and questions, and have not shied away from what might otherwise be called speculative, in order to enhance the opportunities for scientific discovery.

Excerpt
After the experiments were completed, the life span of such “atoms” was calculated theoretically in Chapiro’s works [61,62,63]. His main idea was that nuclear forces, acting between nucleon and anti-nucleon, can keep them far away from each other, hindering their annihilation. For instance, a proton and anti-proton are located at the opposite side of the same orbit and move around the orbit’s centre. If the diameter of their orbit is much larger than the diameter of the “annihilation area”, they can be kept from annihilation (see fig. 3). But because the orbit, according to Quantum Mechanics, is an actual cloud spreading far around the average radius, at any radius between the proton and the anti-proton there is a probability that they can meet one another at the annihilation distance. Therefore the nucleon---anti-nucleon system annihilates in any case, as this system is unstable by definition having a life span no more than 10-20 sec.

Table of Contents
Contents
Preface 5
Foreword 6
1 Unsolved Problems in Theoretical Physics 8
1.1. Problems related to elementary particles 8
1.2. Problems related to Unmatter 11
1.3 Some unresolved problems, questions and applications of the
Brightsen nucleon cluster model 21
2 Unsolved Problems in Mathematics 24
2.1. Maximum number of circles 25
2.2. Consecutive sequence 25
2.3. Diophantine equation 25
2.4. Van Der Waerden Theorem 26
2.5. Differential equation with fractional power 26
2.6. Representation of odd number with prime 26
2.7. Magic square problem 27
2.8. Palindromic number and iteration 27
2.9. Non-Euclidean geometry by giving up its fifth postulate 28
2.10. Smarandache Geometry and Degree of Negation in Geometries 28
2.11. Non-Archimedean triangle theorem 33
2.12. The cubic Diophantine equation 33
2.13. Multispaces and applications in physics 34
3 Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics 35
3.1. Unsolved problems in Celestial Mechanics 35
3.2. Unsolved problems in Astrophysics 37
4 Unsolved Problems in Geophysics 45
4.1. Introduction 45
4.2. Some new questions 45
5 Unsolved Problems in Sorites Quantum Paradox and Smarandache Class of Paradoxes 52
5.1.Introduction 52
5.2.Quantum Paradox and Quantum SoritesParadox 53
5.3. Smarandache’s class of Paradoxes 54
5.4. Paradox 54
5.5. Generalization 55
6 Origin of Spin: Paradox of Classical Beth experiment 57
6.1. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light 57
6.2. Beth experiment is a puzzle 64
6.3. An explanation of Beth experiment 66
6.4. Electrodynamics spin tensor 68
7 Other unsolved problems in various areas of science 72
7.1. Relativity theory 72
7.2. Questions related to Modified Bell’s theorem 73
7.3. Mind-matter interaction, hidden mystery of water 77
7.4. Quaternion wave interpretation of superconductor 80
7.5. Solar dynamics 83
7.6. Science of Energy Conservation and Modified Coulomb-Newton Law 85
7.7. Do fundamental constants in Nature vary with time? 96
7.8. Scale invariance principle and coherent picture between microscale and macroscale phenomena 99
7.9. Does coral reef data support Earth slowing-day hypothesis? 99
7.10. Link between Planckian quantization and quantized information 100
8. Postscript: A description of anomalous electromagnetic phenomena known as the Hutchison Effect 103
Epilogue 111
Acknowledgment 112
References 113
Appendix A: Observation of anomalous potential electric energy of Distilled water under solar heating 121
Appendix B: On the origin of macroquantization in astrophysics 131