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# Multi-Valued Logic, Neutrosophy, and Schrödinger Equation

## By Smarandache, Florentin

Book Id: WPLBN0002828444
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 1.60 mb
Reproduction Date: 7/31/2013

 Title: Multi-Valued Logic, Neutrosophy, and Schrödinger Equation Author: Smarandache, Florentin Volume: Language: English Subject: Collections: Historic Publication Date: 2013 Publisher: World Public Library Member Page: Florentin Smarandache Citation APA MLA Chicago Smarandache, F., & Christianto, V. (2013). Multi-Valued Logic, Neutrosophy, and Schrödinger Equation. Retrieved from http://gutenberg.us/

Description
This book was intended to discuss some paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics from the viewpoint of Multi-Valued-logic pioneered by Lukasiewicz, and a recent concept Neutrosophic Logic. Essentially, this new concept offers new insights on the idea of ‘identity’, which too often it has been accepted as given.

Summary
The book is motivated by observation that despite almost eight decades, there is indication that some of those paradoxes known in Quantum Physics are not yet solved. In our knowledge, this is because the solution of those paradoxes requires re-examination of the foundations of logic itself, in particular on the notion of identity and multi-valuedness of entity.

Excerpt
2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued-logic: History and Introduction to Multi- Valued Algebra 2.1 Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic We all have heard of typical binary logic, Yes or No. Or in a famous phrase by Shakespeare: “To be or not to be.” In the same way all computer hardwares from early sixties up to this year are built upon the same binary logic. It is known that the Classical Logic, also called Bivalent Logic for taking only two values {0, 1}, or Boolean Logic from British mathematician George Boole (1815-64), was named by the philosopher Quine (1981) “sweet simplicity.” [57] But this typical binary logic is not without problems. In the light of aforementioned ‘garment analogue’, we can compare this binary logic with a classic black-and-white tuxedo. It is timeless design, but of course you will not wear it for all occasions. Aristotle himself apparently knew this problem; therefore he introduced new terms ‘contingency’ and ‘possibility’ into his modal logic [5]. And then American logician Lewis first formulated these concepts of logical modality.