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Characterization of Underground Facilities

By Happer, W.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000159623
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 3.1 MB
Reproduction Date: 2008

Title: Characterization of Underground Facilities  
Author: Happer, W.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Government publications, Legislation., Government Printing Office (U.S.)
Collections: Government Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Government Printing Office

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Happer, W. (n.d.). Characterization of Underground Facilities. Retrieved from http://gutenberg.us/


Excerpt
Excerpt: Detection and characterization of underground facilities (UGFs) is a difficult but important problem. Underground facilities are being used to conceal and protect critical activities that pose a threat to the United States. These include the development and storage of weapons of mass destruction, principally nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Underground facilities can also protect critical C3 installations and national leadership.

Table of Contents
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZATION 5 2.1 Vibration Sensing/Seismics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 Applications of acoustic and seismic sensors . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Sensitivity, noise and signal levels . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.3 Laser vibrometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.4 Areas for possible improvements in LVS . . . . . . . . 13 2.2 Power Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 Imaging & Change Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.1 Matched filter SAR for adits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.2 SAR detection of ground settlement due to underground construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.4 Low Frequency Electromagnetic Techniques . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.5 Fluorescence & Fraunhofer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.5.1 Passive detection of fluorescing substances in solar ra- diation by means of the Eraunhofer lines . . . . . . . . 32 2.5.2 Comb filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.6 Magnetic Detection of Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.7 Other Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.7.1 Detection of heat shimmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.7.2 Gravimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.8 Lessons Learned from Tunnel Hunting in Korea . . . . . . . . 47 3 COVERT vs . OVERT FACILITY CHARACTERIZATION 51 3.1 Comparison of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.2 Discussion of Covertness Possibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4 ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE AREAS FOR FUTURE R&D 55 A APPENDIX: SAR Simulation Program 59

 
 



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