World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Three Holy Hierarchs

Article Id: WHEBN0010588467
Reproduction Date:

Title: Three Holy Hierarchs  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Church Fathers, Gregory of Nazianzus, New Year, Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans, Liturgical year
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Three Holy Hierarchs

The Three Hierarchs
Icon for the feast day of the Synaxis of the Three Hierarchs
Fathers Among the Saints
Born 330 (Basil)
349 (John)
329 (Gregory)
Died 379 (Basil)
407 (John)
389 (Gregory)
Honored in
Eastern Orthodoxy, Eastern Catholic Churches
Feast January 30
Attributes Vested as bishops, wearing omophoria; raising right hand in blessing; holding Gospel Books or scrolls

The Three Hierarchs (Ancient Greek: Οἱ Τρεῖς Ἱεράρχαι, Greek: Οι Τρεις Ιεράρχες) of Eastern Christianity refers to Basil the Great (also known as Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (also known as Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom. They were highly influential bishops of the early church who played pivotal roles in shaping Christian theology. In Eastern Christianity they are also known as the Three Great Hierarchs and Ecumenical Teachers, while in Roman Catholicism the three are honored as Doctors of the Church. The three are venerated as saints in Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Anglicanism and other Christian churches.

Origins of the term

Icon of the Three Hierarchs: Basil the Great (left), John Chrysostom (center) and Gregory the Theologian (right)—from Lipie, Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland.

Disputes raged in 11th century Constantinople about which of the three hierarchs was the greatest. Some argued that Basil was superior to the other two because of his explanations of Christian faith and monastic example. Supporters of John Chrysostom countered that the "Golden Mouthed" (Greek: Χρυσόστομος) archbishop of Constantinople was unmatched in both eloquence and in bringing sinners to repentance. A third group insisted that Basil's close friend, Gregory the Theologian, was preferred to the others due to the majesty, purity and profundity of his homilies and his defense of the faith from the Arian heresy. All three have separate feast days in January: Basil on January 1, Gregory on January 25, and Chrysostom on January 27. The Eastern Churches teach that the three hierarchs appeared together in a vision to St. John Mauropous, bishop of Euchaita, in the year 1084, and said that they were equal before God: "There are no divisions among us, and no opposition to one another." As a result, a January 30 feast day commemorating all three in common was instituted around 1100 under the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.[1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Parry (1999), pp. 491–492.

References

  • Parry, David; David Melling (editors) (1999). The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Oxford: Blackwell.  

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.