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Mozhaysk

 

Mozhaysk

Mozhaysk (English)
Можайск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -

Residential buildings in Mozhaysk

Location of Moscow Oblast in Russia
Mozhaysk is located in Moscow Oblast
Mozhaysk
Location of Mozhaysk in Moscow Oblast
Coordinates:
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of September 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Moscow Oblast[1]
Administrative district Mozhaysky District[1]
Town Mozhaysk[1]
Administrative center of Mozhaysky District,[1] Town of Mozhaysk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2011)
Municipal district Mozhaysky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Mozhaysk Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Mozhaysk Municipal District,[2] Mozhaysk Urban Settlement[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 31,363 inhabitants[3]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
First mentioned 1231
Town status since 1708
Postal code(s)[5] 143200–143204, 143210
Dialing code(s) +7 49638
Official website
Mozhaysk]] on Wikimedia Commons

Mozhaysk[6] (Russian: Можайск; IPA: ) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Poland. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census);[3] 31,459 (2002 Census);[7] 30,735 (1989 Census).[8]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Administrative and municipal status 2
  • Architecture 3
  • Trivia 4
  • Twin towns and sister cities 5
  • References 6
    • Notes 6.1
    • Sources 6.2
  • External links 7

History

It was first mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov; it was named after the Mozhay (Mozhaya) River, whose name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian mažoja 'small').[9] Later it was an important stronghold of the Smolensk dynasty, at one time owned by Theodore the Black. The Muscovites seized it in 1303, but in the course of the following century had serious troubles defending it against Algirdas of Lithuania. The principality was usually held by a younger brother of the ruling Grand Duke of Moscow, until the practice was dropped in 1493. In 1562, the Treaty of Mozhaysk was signed there. Town status was granted to Mozhaysk in 1708. Mozhaysk continued to defend the Western approaches to Moscow during the French invasion of Russia in 1812 and World War II (during which it was captured by the Germans on October 16, 1941 and recaptured by the Red Army on January 20, 1942). The Battle of Borodino took place 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the town.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Mozhaysk serves as the administrative center of Mozhaysky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-one rural localities, incorporated within Mozhaysky District as the Town of Mozhaysk.[1] As a municipal division, the Town of Mozhaysk is incorporated within Mozhaysky Municipal District as Mozhaysk Urban Settlement.[2]

Architecture

The new Mozhaysk Cathedral, constructed in 1802–1814

The first stone cathedral was built in the kremlin in the early 14th century; in 1849, it was demolished stone by stone and then reconstructed exactly as it used to be. A larger blood-red cathedral in the Gothic Revival style was completed in 1814. The church of St. Joachim and Anna preserves some parts from the early 15th century. Another important landmark is the Luzhetsky Monastery, founded in 1408 by St. Ferapont and rebuilt in brick in the 16th century. The monastery cathedral, erected during the reign of Vasily III, was formerly known for its frescoes, ascribed to Dionisius' circle.

Trivia

The fact that Mozhaysk was frequently the last major stop on the way to the capital, gave birth to the expression "to push beyond Mozhay" (загнать за Можай, zagnat' za Mozhay), which literally means "push (people, enemy) away (from Moscow) further than Mozhaysk."[10]

Twin towns and sister cities

Mozhaysk is twinned with:

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #123-PG
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #95/2005-OZ
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian).  
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ Alternative transliterations include Mozhaisk, Mozhajsk, Mozhaĭsk, and Možajsk.
  7. ^  
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 272
  10. ^ Geocaching.su. Загнать за Можай (Russian)

Sources

  • Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г. (Governor of Moscow Oblast. Resolution #123-PG of September 28, 2010 On the Inventory Data of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #252-PG of June 26, 2015 On Amending the Inventory Data of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Moscow Oblast. ).
  • Московская областная Дума. Закон №95/2005-ОЗ от 30 марта 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Можайского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №128/2011-ОЗ от 15 июля 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Можайского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №59, 2 апреля 2005 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #95/2005-OZ of March 30, 2005 On the Status and the Borders of Mozhaysky Municipal District and the Newly Established Municipal Formations Comprising It, as amended by the Law #128/2011-OZ of July 15, 2011 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Status and the Borders of Mozhaysky Municipal District and the Newly Established Municipal Formations Comprising It". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links

  • Official website of Mozhaysk (Russian)
  • Unofficial website of Mozhaysk (Russian)
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