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Cyclopedia of Philosophy

By: Sam Vaknin

... is null and void. Any actions which are intended to terminate it and to annul its consequences should be legally and morally permissible. The sam... ...atements cannot be derived with certainty from any negative statement. This formal-logical trait reflects a deep psychological reality with unsettl... ...t. This formal-logical trait reflects a deep psychological reality with unsettling consequences. A positive statement about one's affiliation ("I ... ...nd self-aggrandizement, and the reification and embodiment of said subversion. The logical outcome is to call for the overthrow of all political sy... ...ute them. They dedicate all their attention to the immediate and ignore the future consequences of their actions. In other words, their attention a... ...g and, therefore, regards himself as omnipotent, omniscient and protected from the consequences of his own acts (immune) – the personality disorder... ...: a series of potentialities with attached probabilities, the potentials being the logically and physically possible products. What can we learn a... ...stitute a theory and produce falsifiable predictions. A metaphor is also subject to logical and aesthetic rules and to the rigors of the scientific ... ...its inclusion in the definer) is the very definition of a tautology, the gravest of logical fallacies. On the other hand: if such an external sour...

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Proceedings of the First International Conference on Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Logic, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability and Statistics

By: Florentin Smarandache

...standing/interpretation which might overlap. 2.3 Definition of Neutrosophic Logical Connectives: The connectives (rules of inference, or operator... ...oblem to solve; here we present the easiest ones: One notes the neutrosophic logical values of the propositions A 1 and A 2 by NL(A 1 ) = ( T 1... ...T 1 , I 1 , F 1 ) and NL(A 2 ) = ( T 2 , I 2 , F 2 ). For all neutrosophic logical values below: if, after calculations, one obtains numbers < 0 ... ...cgi?c=connection&f=0&t=255. [27] Le, Charles T. Le, Software for neutrosophic logical operators, Networking by Industry, Inc. Online, http://www.in... ...nt events, then (3) A4: (countable additivity) If are disjoint events (4) 2.2 Consequences of axioms and bayesian inference From these axioms, all o... ...ery important to note that these rules apply only on irreductible propositions (logical atoms) . A proposition is said to be irreductible (or equivale... ... 2000 MSC: 03E99, 03-99, 03B99, 60A99, 62A01, 62-99. Introduction: As a consequence to [1], [3], [4-7] we display the below unusual extension... ... effect to each other. 5. Representing the <Neut-A> <Neut-A> comes as the consequence of the contradiction between <A> and <Anti-A>, therefore ... ...ny contexts as we can, in order to be less-incomplete and discuss some possible consequences. 1. Introduction Upset because none of the logics I knew ...

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Progress in Physics : The Journal on Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Including Related Themes from Mathematics

By: Florentin Smarandache

... atom (or group of atoms) X which has last one or more electrons (and as a consequence carries a negative charge, called anion, or has gained one or m... ...gative charge, called anion, or has gained one or more electrons (and as a consequence carries a positive charge, called cation). Similarly to isotope... ... continuum that is not only curved, but also non-differentiable, and, as a consequence, fractal. The equation of geodesics in such a space-time can be... ... E-mail: czarlosromanov@yahoo.com; castro@ctsps.cau.edu We investigate the consequences of the Mach’s principle of inertia within the context of the D... ...mal length uncertainty relations [11] was furnished in [45]. The dynamical consequences of the minimal-length in Newtonian dynamics have been recently... ...a poplyvectorX given in eq.-(2). This work thus paved the way for the next logical step, that is, to consider other multivector components of X in a u...

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Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache

...trongly resemble neural networks, and they have powerful and far-reaching consequences as a mathematical tool for modeling complex systems. Prof. Ba... ... this stimulus input vector with FCM matrix, K.C. Lee et al [65] obtain a consequence vector as follows: (0, 0, 0, 0, 0.3, 0, – 0.3, 0.5) × FCM ma... ...3, 0, – 0.3, 0.5) × FCM matrix = (– 0.5, 0, 0.24, 0, – 0.08, 0, 0). The consequence vector may be interpreted such that changes in those three fact... ... vector can be organized into (0, 0, 0, – 0.1, 0.3, 0, – 0.3, .2). Then a consequence vector may be obtained as (– 0.15, .02, 0, – 0.24, 0, –0.12, 0... ...∩ M j ) ⊂ ( ~ Q j ∩ M j ). Here “⊂” stands for fuzzy set inclusion (logical implication). For brevity, fuzzy causal relationship is abbreviate... ...ity, fuzzy causal relationship is abbreviated as FCR in the following. Logical implication has an antecedent (or premise) and a consequent (or con... ...t (or premise) and a consequent (or conclusion). A typical example of the logical implication is “If A, then B”. In the logical implication, there a... ...quence: negation of A (or ¬ A). The FCR is more complicated than the logical implication. 1. Modus tollens does not hold in the FCR. “When mi... ...ble for relations between several concepts are indeterminate). 2. In a logical implication “If A, Then B”, we cannot draw inference in case when ...

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Capitalistic Musings

By: Sam Vaknin

...y captured by econometric models. These either lack predictive powers or lapse into logical fallacies, such as the "omitted variable bias" or "rever... ... behaviour. It must adequately cope with irrationality and cognitive deficits. d. Logical compatibility – It must not violate the laws of its inte... ...s new position and will be interpreted as immunity, conferred from above, from the consequences of illegal activities. The very allocation of opt... ...ce resources in order to attain their utility functions, to secure the outcomes and consequences (the value, the preference, that the player attache... ...that at least one of them is forced to alter at least one vector (Strategy). The Consequence to the agent is the value of a function that assigns... ... is the value of a function that assigns real numbers to each of the outcomes. The consequence represents a list of outcomes, prioritized, ranked. ... ...to cooperate and to cooperate in the formation of an outside agency. There is no logical or mathematical reason to exclude the latter possibility... ...ose related to the subject and those pertaining to the rest of the universe). d. Logically compatible – It must not violate the laws of logic bot... ...t of seeing a pattern emerging out of a big body of data. The insights must be the logical conclusion of the logic, the language and of the develop...

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Utility, Rationality and Beyond – from Behavioral Finance to Informational Finance

By: Sukanto Bhattacharya

...could still possibly be explained away as “infinite loss” but there is no logically acceptable way to explain the log of a negative number if f(X) > ... ...e theory was originally stated in much generalized, abstract terms. As a consequence, it presented possible areas of application covering a number ... ...while dynamically they may be viewed as set-valued vector functions. If a logical proposition is said to be t% true in T, i% indeterminate in I and ... ...f p t at every t so as to minimize the total error. It is quite logical to assume that the p t values will have to be related in some way... ...oduct of the relative reward r (c n ) that the individual attaches to the consequences resulting from the choice c n , the likelihood that the choice... ... arbitrage opportunities over any significant length of time. By logical extension, considering a structured portfolio with n assets, the be... ...ow, Peterson, U.S.A., 1957. Festinger, L., J. M. Carlsmith. Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psycho... ...ooper. Motivational basis of dissonance: The singular role of behavioral consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56, 1989: 899-9...

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Facts and Fictions in the Securities Industry

By: Sam Vaknin

...essional testimony this summer: "While bubbles that burst are scarcely benign, the consequences need not be catastrophic for the economy ... (The D... ...d thus shook the trust in the entire financial system; they amplified the negative consequences of unbridled speculation (that is not related to re... ...s new position and will be interpreted as immunity, conferred from above, from the consequences of illegal activities. The very allocation of optio... ...e resources in order to attain their utility functions, to secure the outcomes and consequences (the value, the preference, that the player attache... ...nt that at least one of them is forced to alter at least one vector (Strategy). The Consequence to the agent is the value of a function that assigns... ..., to cooperate and to cooperate in the formation of an outside agency. There is no logical or mathematical reason to exclude the latter possibility...

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Progress in Physics : The Journal on Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Including Related Themes from Mathematics, Volume 2

By: Florentin Smarandache

... its geometrical analysis and identifcation of the invariants, as a direct consequence of its initial invalidated assum- ptions about ther-parameter, ... .../9906004). 21. Abrams L. S. The total space-time of a point charge and its consequences for black holes. Int. J. Theor. Phys., 1996, v. 35, 2661 (see ... ...of observable time around rotating bulky bodies like stars or planets. The consequences should be more pronounced in the interaction of the components... ... principle is valid for time density felds in atoms. Postulate III has two consequences: CONSEQUENCE I An atom undergoing excitation radiates the mome... ...effcient) for quantum numbers n 1, we obtain F N =(1+ )q cos 2 θ. (109) CONSEQUENCE II An atom undergoing relaxation absorbs the momentum fux of a ... ... resonance effect in a quadrupole mass-detector. However, it would be more logical way, making no as- sumptions or propositions, to solve the Synge-We...

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A History of U. S. Communications Security (Volumes I and Ii);1973

By: David G. Boak

...t not only find a meaDS for rendering iDformation unintelligible, he must U&e a procesa which is logical and reprocluo"ble at the receiving end. All o... ... especially as we reduce the amount of useful plain language available to hostile -SIGINT, it is logical to assume that that hostile effort will be dr... ... __ 19 EQUIPMENT CLASSIFICATION • •••'. • • • __ '" ___ ___ 21 PUBLIC CRYPTOGRAPHY-SOME CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES • __ • • •• _••• _ 27 PKC . • • ._._._._... ...y removal and safe storqe when the equipment is DOt attended or under direct guard. As a natural consequence, it was an cay step to zeroiz.e equipmcnt... ...AL ~/.. , ---" ---., ./"..•- ...--., ./' --- .~./ EO 1. 4. (c) PUBLIC CRYPTOGRAPHY-SOME CAUSES a CONSEQUENCES (U) This strange term remains imperfectl... ...d bitten the bullet, decidinl to seek a JCIlCB: COMSEC solution. This was a decision of enormous consequence for IJS. The notion of injectinl Communic... ...de to opponents on tbe security of their own systems. i / / ~be event witb tbe most far-reaching consequences which stemmed/in p8n from our bavina gra...

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Sextus Empiricus and Greek Scepticism

By: Mary Mills Patrick

...m the surname Empiricus would have been more appropriate, if it was given in consequence of prominence in the Empirical School. Sextus is known to th... ...ity to consist in subjective experience, but he does not follow this to its logical conclusion, and doubt the existence of anything outside of mind.... ...er of argument, by which the Sceptics arrived at the condition of doubt, in consequence of the equality of probabilities, and he calls the Tropes, th... ...stly be found in other authors of antiquity given in a similar way. [5] The logical result of the reasoning used to explain the first Trope, is that... ...not with equal understanding of the results to be deduced from it. [3] The consequence of the incompatibility of the mental representations produce... ...ted to Agrippa is a marked one, and shows the entrance into the school of a logical power before unknown in it. The latter are not a reduction of th... ...heories of Pyrrhonism, while the five are rather rules of thought leading to logical proof, and are dialectic in their character. We find this distin... ...points to an objective relativity, but with Agrippa to a general subjective logical principle. The originality of the Tropes of Agrippa does not lie... ...al assertion, Σεκεῖνλ νὐθ εἶλαη, [4] and proceeds to introduce the logical consequence of the denial of aetiology. The summing up of the Tropes of ...

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Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living with Hiv/Aids Using Fuzzy Theory and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache

...gram should be very suggestive to make them aware of the disease and the consequence of their high-risk behavior which will ultimately land them wi... ...ant to mention at least 4% of them acknowledged that they are reaping the consequences of their deeds. Some of them were stoic. When we asked what t... ...nt reveals that the other three conditions cannot be ignored and have its consequences in spreading HIV/ AIDS. Similarly by taking a vector Y K one... ...se refer Smarandache. DEFINITION 4.1.1: In the neutrosophic logic every logical variable x is described by an ordered triple x = (T, I, F) where T... ...tent logic, which means contradictory sources of information about a same logical variable, proposition or event one has T + I + F > 1. Thus ... ...t when he had sex with other women and with CSWs he was not aware of the consequences. He has two children. His wife is also affected with HIV. Hi... ...with no one to question and had no conscience and could not think of the consequences. o. The sudden change of atmosphere and the urban settings p... ...Association, 259 (1988) 1333-1337. 69. McCulloch, W.S., and Pitts, W., “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity,” Bulletin of ... ...ormation and Control, 8 (1965) 139-146. 122. Zhang, W., and Chen, S., “A Logical Architecture for Cognitive Maps,” Proceedings of the 2 nd IEEE I...

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Bail Yourself Out

By: Rav Michael Laitman

...them. Every expansion of Chapter 3: The Currents of Desire 21 gas was a consequence of the desire to give, which expands and creates, and every co... ...n nature, we must be positive and contribute to everyone, everywhere. The consequence of not doing so is the crisis we see unfolding before our eyes... ...ing texts. This book reaches out to all those seekers who want to find a logical, reliable way to under- stand the world’s phenomena. This fascinati... ...ner both rational and mature. Readers are gradually led to understand the logical design of the Universe and the life that exists in it. The Science...

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The Kaluza Concept

By: Keith Young

...onship to each other of objects 10 therein – essential in essence to our logical comprehension of our physical location in relation to the world,... ...tioning on a physical level with our reality. Cause precedes effect in a “logical” fashion which enables us to predict and interact with our enviro... ... – out of time as we know it – and therefore experience at first hand the consequences of their own actions. Many people come away from this r... ...ave undergone N.D.E.s say that time is greatly compressed, as if it has no logical meaning. A description of time in this realm, wherever it is, is...

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Trendsiters Digital Content and Web Technologies

By: Sam Vaknin

...till, it was a revolution whose magnitude is difficult to gauge and whose consequences defy imagination. It carries an equally momentous price tag -... ...hip and on the economics of publishing? A. The DMCA has several harmful consequences for scholarship. First, it prevents some scientists who happ... ...d re-invent themselves. Everyone else watches in amazement and dismay the consequences of this grand folly: innovation is thwarted, consumers penali... ...e smokescreen: identities can rarely be established and evading the legal consequences of one's actions or omissions is easy. As the exposure of the... ...nd applications to talk to each other. What matters are accessibility and logical and user-friendly work-flows. Enter Enfish. In its own words, i... ... is a prime example of a collective brain in action. 2. The Intranet - a Logical Extension of the Collective Computer LANs (Local Area Networks) ar... ...d inaccessible. Moreover, the Internet manipulates strings of symbols, not logical or semantic propositions. In other words, the Net compares values ... ...ed to the subject and those pertaining to the rest of the universe). d. Logically compatible – It must not violate the laws of logic both internall... ...ng a pattern emerging out of a big body of data. The insights must be the logical conclusion of the logic, the language and of the development of th...

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Empire and Wars

By: Sam Vaknin

...he process. Like any psychopath, the USA believes that it should be immune to the consequences of its misconduct abroad. Hence its shock when al-Q... ...uld blame the US for all that happened. The US had to react, and Afghanistan was a logical target. In this sense, the US did what the terrorists wa... ...e concern” regarding the cumulative shortfall in funds and warned of “very serious consequences on the humanitarian situation in Iraq”. Mr. Sevan a... ...territories "genocide" - hastening to reverse himself when faced with the possible consequences of his Freudian slip. Indeed, the looming conflict ... ...nt of socially owned enterprises and rigidified the budding labor market with dire consequences. One in two Kosovars is unemployed. Whatever activ... ...did? On the one hand, he may have saved lives and prevented a conflagration whose consequences no one could predict. On the other hand, by ignorin...

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Begin the Adventure : How to Break the Light Barrier

By: Florentin Smarandache

... megameters per second as "the speed of light," we paint ourselves into a logical corner in which light is automatically taken as the subject of dis... ... which can neither be reached nor exceeded by any real body." Then: "As a consequence of its motion the clock goes more slowly than when at rest. H... ...hat we can comprehend is my religion." [3] And are we to believe that our logical analyses are trumped by the Venerable Force, and further that Eins... ...r how you slice it. Born (1962, p. 254): "Thus the contraction is only a consequence of our way of regarding things and is not a change of a physica... ...he standpoint of existing knowledge, it is entirely possible, and it is a consequence of Einstein's new theory of relativity, that no signal can be ...

...od what I was saying. By referring to the universal constant c= 299.792 458 megameters per second as "the speed of light," we paint ourselves into a logical corner in which light is automatically taken as the subject of discussion even when it is not. The careful reader will know not to immediately think "light" when he hears or reads "the speed of light." But it is bett...

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WTF! This is a Liberal Utopia!

By: Frank B. Thompson, III

...e same high-sounding, muddled thinking of the geniuses on 'the left;' through vapid, touchy-feely, non-erudite, irrational conclusions and illogical, logical sounding arguments. The book the publishing houses would never let see the light of day....

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Introduction to Neutrosophic Logic

By: Charles Ashbacher

... Propositions Section 2 The Law of the Excluded Middle Section 3 Logical Equivalence Section 4 Well-Formed Formulas or WFFs Sectio... ...sophic Logic Section 1 Definition of Neutrosphic Logic Section 2 Logical Connectives in Neutrosophic Logic Section 3 Algebraic Propertie... ... 1 Classical Logic Section 1 Propositions In classical logic, a logical variable is restricted to the values of true(T) and false(F). The ... ...ry in the result column, there are 2 n different Boolean functions for n logical variables. Given the truth values in the column above the 5, ... ...on 1.1.4: In the expression p → q, p is known as the antecedent and q the consequence. The implication is often described as the if-then connective. ... ...on ( p /\ q ) \/ ( ¬ p /\ ¬q ). The ↔ connective can also be considered logical equality. Exclusive or (^) can be considered logical inequality ... ...is no middle between the two “extreme” values of true and false. One consequence of this law is the concept of a vacuous proof. What this means ... ...It is interpreted as a statement that if the antecedent is true, then the consequence is also true. The statement is then false if the antecedent is... ...also true. The statement is then false if the antecedent is true, but the consequence is false. With this notion, if it is not possible to prove the...

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The Public Domain : Enclosing the Commons of the Mind

By: James Boyle

...ts with those to physical property. (I outline that process and its negative consequences in the next chapter.) They will argue, and again I agree, th... ...1.qxd 8/28/08 11:04 AM Page 19 milk, you cannot. Excludable property is, logically enough, property from which others can easily be excluded or ke... ...might, during sixty years, to Boswell’s eldest son. What would have been the consequence? An unadulterated copy of the finest biographical work in the ... ...om the same evidence” or from extending those arguments and developing their consequences. In a line that Hesse rightly highlights, he declares that a... ... of authors’ rights it turned out, in Hesse’s words, to reflect “an epistemo- logically impure and unstable legal synthesis that combined an instrument... ...century.” Poor Jefferson. How lucky we are to have Mr. Helprin to remedy the consequences of his lack of vision. Or perhaps not. Think of the way that... ...imply because they may be used to infringe copyrights. That, however, is the logical implication of their claim. The re- quest for an injunction below... ...ss to the property. The rules that forbid circumvention of these systems are logically, if not elegantly, referred to as the anticircumvention provisi... ... ing the operation of computers, a metaphor that enables us to imitate their logical processes. In the words of Wikipedia, “despite their simplicity—[...

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The Vatican Conspiracy

By: Jonathan Cross

...out the words not knowing where they came from, certainly not his formidable, logical mind. Michael Brand left, leaving the room in a p... ...ion, if any governmental agency chooses to file charges, I'll accept whatever consequences that comes with it." Alex turned back to the full audience... ...onger. Tonight, he would not mince words. Oshiro would have to understand the consequences of his decision. The table was set as elegantly as a gar... ...k for you, if you wish, but they must 219 J.Cross/Artemis understand the consequences of disobedience to the Oyabun, and the refusal of this mi... ... Alex?" she said trembling with emotion. This wasn't the time for Alex to be logical. He just held her in his arms. Alex said quietly to Walter, "... ...bed an Iraqi power plant. 274 J.Cross/Artemis But Soule’ was, however, a logical man, and to some degree he understood why they had done so. Hi... ...inch the Israelis too hard, they will react. And you may not be ready for the consequences." Soule' nodded his agreement. "You will have your rev... ...t that the Colombians are not even trying to get drugs into the country. As a consequence, the Russian gangs are letting up on the Puerto Ricans and ...

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And Gulliver Returns Book VI : Our Psychological Motivations

By: Lemuel Gulliver XVI

...can think our way into our behavior. I would certainly like to believe her, but the evidence points to the fact that we are psychological, not logica... ...ave probably heard, that‘s why we psychologists study our field—to throw suspicion off ourselves. ―We are afraid we won‘t be seen as logica... ...n imaging is giving us pictures of how the brain will react. Imaging often shows us that the brain will react in ways quite different from the logica... ...te different from the logical rules that we think of as our unique human ability. The limbic system in the brain often takes priority over the logica... ... 11 ―Most of don‘t want to believe it but we are psychological—not logica... ...action. So in setting both long and short term goals many of us would profit by looking at all of the options and thinking seriously about the conseq...

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