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A Unifying Field in Logics : Neutrosophic Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability

By: Florentin Smarandache

...trosophic statistics. This representation is closer to the human mind reasoning. It characterizes/catches the imprecision of knowledge or lingu... ... 1 + 0. The atom's structure holds in the history of any idea. The reasoning is based upon the analysis of positive, negative, and neutral pr... ...d in itself, and action, and movement, and general theory, and process of reasoning. This approach differs from neutrosophism, which is a point of v... ...} – which occurs in rare/absolute exceptions, by means of formal rules of reasoning of this neutrosophic philosophy. The logical cogitation's ... ...from two different sources. Belief function is a connection between fuzzy reasoning and probability. The Dempster- Shafer Theory of Belief Functions ... ... A formal system comprises a formal language (alphabet and grammar) and a deductive apparatus (axioms and/or rules of inference). In a formal syste...

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Cyclopedia of Philosophy

By: Sam Vaknin

... injustice in the distribution of wealth or love – we become angry because of moral reasoning, whether the injustice was deliberate or not. We retal... ... as a result of our ability to morally reason and to get even. Sometimes even moral reasoning is lacking, as in when we simply wish to alleviate a d... ...se to have authored it. It must have been an entity capable of thinking, analysing, reasoning, theorizing and predicting in the deepest senses of th... ...ped into three moral levels... At the third level, that of postconventional moral reasoning, the adult bases his moral standards on principles tha... ... available to reason and intellect. Sometimes, the boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yield the same resul... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate...

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Principles of Anarchism

By: Tim Parise

...Taking an unusual approach to its topic, “Principles of Anarchism” applies classical logic and deductive reasoning to the subject of human interactions and rights. Beginning with the assumption that all human beings are equal, a concept which is termed the human equality axiom, the author goes on to draw a number of c...

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The Ulysseans

By: Antonio Mercurio

... until now has been able to imagine. The other philosophers are capable of reasoning only in a linear fashion, whereas I, instead, have learned to r... ... it affirms that the line is an absolute. I have no doubt that this brief reasoning can clear the mind of philosophers and scientists from their un... ...a single cause. If instead I recognize that they cannot exist, through the reasoning 96 demonstrated here, I must recognize that this is false. It... ...urselves that God is round and not flat. I have no doubt that this brief reasoning can clear the mind of philosophers and scientists from their un... ...ve formulated it, though, in the form of a theorem, which is the result of reasoning. This means that I have tried to put together intuition and reas... ...ativity. The type of reasoning we will be using in our case will not be deductive or inductive reasoning. We instead will use reasoning by analog...

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Speculations and Physics

By: Sam Vaknin, Ph. D.

...ike Carl Hempel and Ernest Nagel regard a theory as scientific if it is hypothetico-deductive. To them, scientific theories are sets of inter-relate... ...r-related because a minimum number of axioms and hypotheses yield, in an inexorable deductive sequence, everything else known in the field the theor... ...ith breadth, width, and profundity, such as Darwin's theory of evolution - are not deductively integrated and are very difficult to test (falsify) ... ... scientific activity. Alleged connections that cannot be captured in these nets of reasoning are cast out either as "hypothetical" or as "false". I... ...erse is partial to life, not indifferent to it. All four are forms of teleological reasoning (that nature has a purpose) masquerading as eutaxiolog... ...ical accounts are possible. What happens when we try to apply the same teleological reasoning to the system as a whole, to the Universe itself? In t... ...h as the electron or dark matter) derive their meaning from their place in complex deductive systems of empirically-testable theorems. Ethicists re... ... have been the first to offer this simplistic formulation of the Logical (a-priori, deductive) Problem of Evil, later expounded on by David Hume in ...

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Modelling of Rationality...and Beyond the Physics

By: Gh. C. Dinulescu

...ion, to prevailingly develop its intellectual qualities. 11 A similar reasoning leads to the conclusion that an entity with a greater OY section,... ... is not a rigorous method and that even these disciplines can’t reject the deductive method; not mentioning the non-experimental ones. But the dedu... ...hical disciplines, through force of circumstances, the research method is deductive, but what distinguishes these disciplines of the scientific ones ... ...e potential reason, that storing, as an original document of the manifest reasoning , on each monad and it is in turn a premise for the manifest rat...

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