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Wmo

"WMO" redirects here. For other uses, see WMO (disambiguation).

المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية
World Meteorological Organization
Organisation météorologique mondiale
Organización Meteorológica Mundial
Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация
世界气象组织
WMO flag
Org type UN agency
Acronyms WMO
OMM
Head Michel Jarraud (Secretary-General)
David Grimes (President)
Status Active
Established 1950
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Website

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[1] The current Secretary-General is Michel Jarraud.[2] The current president is David Grimes.[3]

The organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.[4]

WMO has a membership of 191 member states and territories (as of 1 January 2013). The Convention of the World Meteorological Organization was signed 11 October 1947[5] and established upon ratification in 1950. WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations in 1951 for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873.[4]

The WMO hierarchy:

  • The World Meteorological Congress determines the policy of WMO and meets every four years. Each Member country is represented by a Permanent Representative with WMO. The Permanent Representative should be the director of the National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service.
  • The Executive Council (EC) implements Congress decisions and meets once a year.
  • Six regional associations for addressing regional concerns (see the section on regional associations, below)
  • Eight technical commissions provide technical recommendations for WMO and the national services.
  • The secretariat headed by the Secretary-General coordinates the activities of WMO with a regular staff of more than 250 employees.[6]

Activities

As weather, climate and the water cycle know no national boundaries, international cooperation at a global scale is essential for the development of meteorology and operational hydrology as well as to reap the benefits from their application. WMO provides the framework for such international cooperation.

Since its establishment, WMO has played a unique and powerful role in contributing to the safety and welfare of humanity. Under WMO leadership and within the framework of WMO programs,[7] National Meteorological and Hydrological Services[8] contribute substantially to the protection of life and property against natural disasters, to safeguarding the environment and to enhancing the economic and social well-being of all sectors of society in areas such as food security, water resources and transport.

The WMO and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It is also directly responsible for the creation of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The IPCC has received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."[9]

WMO promotes cooperation in the establishment of networks for making meteorological, climatological, hydrological and geophysical observations, as well as the exchange, processing and standardization of related data, and assists technology transfer, training and research. It also fosters collaboration between the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of its Members and furthers the application of meteorology to public weather services, agriculture, aviation, shipping, the environment, water issues and the mitigation of the impacts of natural disasters.

WMO facilitates the free and unrestricted exchange of data and information, products and services in real- or near-real time on matters relating to safety and security of society, economic welfare and the protection of the environment. It contributes to policy formulation in these areas at national and international levels.

In the specific case of weather-, climate and water-related hazards, which account for nearly 90% of all natural disasters, WMO's programs provide vital information for the advance warnings that save lives and reduce damage to property and the environment. WMO also contributes to reducing the impacts of human-induced disasters, such as those associated with chemical and nuclear accidents, forest fire and volcanic ash. Studies have shown that, apart from the incalculable benefit to human well-being, every dollar invested in meteorological and hydrological services produces an economic return many times greater, often ten times or more.

WMO plays a leading role in international efforts to monitor and protect the environment through its programs. In collaboration with other UN agencies and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, WMO supports the implementation of a number of environmental conventions[10] and is instrumental in providing advice and assessments to governments on related matters. These activities contribute towards ensuring the sustainable development and well-being of nations.

WMO publishes the International Cloud Atlas, the international standard cloud atlas since 1896.

Meteorological codes

In keeping with its mandate to promote the standardization of meteorological observations, the WMO maintains numerous code forms for the representation and exchange of meteorological, oceanographical, and hydrological data. The traditional code forms, such as SYNOP, CLIMAT and TEMP, are character-based and their coding is position-based. Newer WMO code forms are designed for portability, extensibility and universality. These are BUFR, CREX, and, for gridded geo-positioned data, GRIB.

World Meteorological Day


  • World Meteorological Day is held annually on 23 March.[11]

Awards and prizes

  • International Meteorological Organization Prize
  • Vilho Väisälä Award
  • Norbert Gerbier-Mumm International Award
  • WMO Research Award for Young Scientists

WMO conference on climate prediction and information for decision-making

World Climate Conference-3 (WCC-3) was held from 31 August to 4 September 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland, under the auspices of WMO. Its goal was to address advancements in seasonal to multi-decadal climate predictions and to spur their applications to decision-making in socio-economic sectors, including food, water, energy, health, tourism and development sectors. The Conference aimed to contribute to the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and broader UN climate goals through support for climate adaptation.[12]

Membership

As of February 2013, member states of the organisation include 183 of the 193 UN members, the Cook Islands and Niue, for a total of 185 member states. Additionally there are 6 member territories, listed below.[13]

There are 10 states that are members of the United Nations, but not of the WMO. These are: Andorra, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and San Marino; the most populous of these countries is Equatorial Guinea, with nearly 700,000 inhabitants. Non-members of either organisation include the Vatican City and the states with limited recognition.

The six member territories are: the British Caribbean Territories (joint meteorological organisation and membership),[14] French Polynesia, Hong Kong, Macau, Curaçao and Sint Maarten (joint meteorological service and membership),[14] and New Caledonia. Below is a table of all members with admission dates.

Current member states

States that joined the WMO before they joined the UN are marked with a blue background. States that are members of the WMO, but not of the UN are marked with a green background. For comparison, see Member states of the United Nations. The dates are the dates of the ratification of the WMO Convention by the member, or the date of accession.[15] The national meteorological services belonging to each member state are also listed.[16]

Member states National Meteorological Services Date of admission
Template:Flagu Afghanistan Meteorological Authority Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Hydrometeorological Institute of Albania Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Services Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Bureau of Meteorology Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Bangladesh Meteorological Department Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Royal Meteorological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu, Plurinational State of Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Darussalam Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Meteorological Service of Canada Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu China Meteorological Administration Template:Dts/outdmy1[17]
Template:Flagu Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Instituto Meteorológico Nacional Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Czech Hydrometeorological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Danish Meteorological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (Ecuador) Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Fiji Meteorological Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Finnish Meteorological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Météo-France Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Deutscher Wetterdienst Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Hellenic National Meteorological Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Icelandic Meteorological Office Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu India Meteorological Department Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu, Islamic Republic of Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Met Éireann Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Israel Meteorological Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Servizio Meteorologico Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Japan Meteorological Agency Template:Dts/outdmy1
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North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea Template:Dts/outdmy1
South Korea Republic of Korea Korea Meteorological Administration Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Servicio Meteorológico Nacional Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Hydrometeorological Institute of Montenegro Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Mozambique National Institute of Meteorology Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Norwegian Meteorological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Pakistan Meteorological Department Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Administraţia Naţionala de Meteorologie Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagun Federation Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of Russia Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Slovenian Environment Agency Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu South African Weather Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Agencia Estatal de Meteorología Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu MeteoSwiss Template:Dts/outdmy1
Syria Syrian Arab Republic Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu, United Republic of Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu, Democratic Republic of Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Tonga Meteorological Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Turkish State Meteorological Service Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Met Office Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu of America National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu, Bolivarian Republic of Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1[19]
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1[20]
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1
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Historical member states

Member states Date of admission Date membership ended Note
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Template:Dts/outdmy1 Seat in the UN transferred to the People's Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details)
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Template:Dts/outdmy1 German reunification
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Template:Dts/outdmy1 Reunification of Vietnam
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Template:Dts/outdmy1 Reunification of Vietnam
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Template:Dts/outdmy1 Yemeni unification
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Template:Dts/outdmy1 Yemeni unification
Template:Flagu Template:Dts/outdmy1  ? Breakup of Yugoslavia

Member territories

Member territories Meteorological Services Date of admission
British Caribbean Territories Caribbean Meteorological Organisation Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu and Template:Flagu Meteorological Department Curaçao Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Météo-France Polynesie Francaise Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Hong Kong Observatory Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau Template:Dts/outdmy1
Template:Flagu Météo-France Nouvelle-Calédonie Template:Dts/outdmy1

Membership by regional associations

The member states of the WMO are divided into six regional associations. The division is as follows:[21]

Region Number of member states Percentage of total Number of member territories Percentage of total
I 57 31% 0 0%
II 33 18% 2 33%
III 13 7% 0 0%
IV 25 14% 2 33%
V 21 11% 2 33%
VI 50 27% 0 0%
WMO 185 100% 6 100%

The sum of member states in the regional associations is larger than the total number of member states because some nations are members to more than one regional association.

Region I (Africa)

Region I consists of the nations of Africa and a few former colonial powers, and has 57 member states and no member territories; these are:[22]

Region II (Asia)

Region II consists of nations in Asia, having a total of 33 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:[23]

The member territories are:

  • Hong Kong, China
  • Macau, China

Region III (South America)

Region III consists of the nations of South America, including France (French Guiana is an overseas region of France in South America). It has a total of 13 member states and no member territories. The member states are:[24]

Region IV (North America, Central America, and the Caribbean)

Region IV consists of the nations of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, including three nations based in Europe with dependencies within the region. It has a total of 25 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:[25]

The two member territories are:

  • British Caribbean Territories
  • Curaçao and Sint Maarten

Region V (South-West Pacific)

Region V consists of nations in the south-west Pacific. This includes 21 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:[26]

The Cook Islands and Niue are both member states despite the fact that neither is a member state of the United Nations; both are in free association with New Zealand.

The member territories are:

  • French Polynesia
  • New Caledonia

Region VI (Europe)

Region VI consists mostly of nations in Europe, but also of a few in Western Asia. It has 50 member states and no member territories. These are:[27]

States with membership in more than one region

A total of 9 member states have membership in more than one region. Two nations are members to four different regions, while seven are members of two regions. These nations, with their regions, are as follows:

  • France (Regions I, III, IV, and VI)
  • United Kingdom (Regions I, IV, V, and VI)
  • Colombia (Regions III and IV)
  • Kazakhstan (Regions II and VI)
  • Netherlands (Regions IV and VI)
  • Portugal (Regions I and VI)
  • Russian Federation (Regions II and IV)
  • Spain (Regions I and VI)
  • Venezuela (Regions III and IV)

See also

References

External links

  • WMO.int – Official Website
  • WMO country codes from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
  • WCC-3

Template:National Meteorological Organisations

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