World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Volga Bulgars

Article Id: WHEBN0000578902
Reproduction Date:

Title: Volga Bulgars  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Khazars, May 12, 921, Bulgars, Turkic peoples, Alans, Tatars, Tatarstan, Human sacrifice, Ahmad ibn Fadlan
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Volga Bulgars

This article is about the historical country on the Volga. For the ship that sank in the river, see Bulgaria (ship).
Volga Bulgaria
Volga–Kama Bolğar

7th century–1240s
Volga Bulgaria (green), c. 1200.
Capital Bolghar
Bilär
Languages Bulgar
Suar, Barsil, Bilar, Baranja
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
Ruler
 -  Mid-7th century Kotrag
 -  Early 10th century Almish Yiltawar
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 7th century
 -  Conquered by the Mongols 1240s
Today part of
Tatarstan
Chuvashia
Part of a series on the
History of Russia
Early Slavs / Rus' pre-9th century
Volga Bulgaria 7th–13th century
Khazar Khaganate 7th–10th century
Rus' Khaganate 8th–9th century
Kievan Rus' 9th–12th century
Vladimir-Suzdal 12th–14th century
Novgorod Republic 12th–15th century
Tatar Yoke 13th–15th century
Grand Duchy 1283–1547
Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721
Russian Empire 1721–1917
Russian Republic 1917
Russian SFSR / Soviet Union 1917–1991
Russian Federation 1992–present
Timeline
Russia portal
Part of a series on the
History of Tatarstan
Great Bulgaria
Khazars
Volga Bulgaria
Kipchaks
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Muscovy
Kazan Governorate
Idel-Ural State
Tatar ASSR
Republic of Tatarstan
Tatarstan portal

Volga Bulgaria, or Volga–Kama Bolghar, was a historic Islamic Bulgar state that existed between the seventh and thirteenth centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia. The population was mostly Bulgars, who had conquered Finno-Ugrics and Turkic speakers of the region. The population had been pagan, but Islam was adopted as the state religion in the early tenth century.

Origin

Information from first-hand sources on Volga Bulgaria is rather sparse. As no authentic Bulgar records have survived, most of our information comes from contemporary Arabic, Persian, Indian or Russian sources. Some information is provided by excavations.

It is thought that the territory of Volga Bulgaria was originally settled by Finno-Ugric peoples, including Mari people. The Bulgars moved from the Azov region in about AD 660, commanded by Kotrag, Kubrat's son. They reached Idel-Ural in the eighth century, where they became the dominant population at the end of the 9th century, uniting other tribes of different origin which lived in the area.[1] Some Bulgar tribes, however, continued westward and eventually settled along the Danube River, in what is now known as Bulgaria proper, where they created a confederation with the Slavs, adopting a South Slavic language and the Eastern Orthodox faith.

Most scholars agree that the Volga Bulgars were subject to the great Khazarian Empire, until Khazaria's destruction and conquest by Sviatoslav in the late 10th century, after which Volga Bulgaria grew in size and power. Sometime in the late 9th century unification processes started, and the capital was established at Bolghar (also spelled Bulgar) city, 160 km south from modern Kazan. Most scholars doubt, however, that the state could assert independence from the Khazars until the latter were annihilated by Svyatoslav of Rus in 965.

Rise and conversion to Islam

Islam was adopted as the state religion in the early tenth century, under Almish ibn Shilki Yiltawar.[2] Ibn Fadlan was dispatched by the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir in 922/3 to establish relations and bring qadis and teachers of Islamic law to Volga Bulgaria, as well as help in building a fort and a mosque.[3] The Volga Bulgarians attempted to convert Vladimir I of Kiev to Islam; however Vladimir rejected the notion of Russians giving up wine, which he declared was the "very joy of their lives".[4]

Commanding the Volga River in its middle course, the state controlled much of trade between Europe and Asia prior to the Crusades (which made other trade routes practicable). The capital, Bolghar, was a thriving city, rivalling in size and wealth with the greatest centres of the Islamic world. Trade partners of Bolghar included from Vikings, Bjarmland, Yugra and Nenets in the north to Baghdad and Constantinople in the south, from Western Europe to China in the East. Other major cities included Bilär, Suar (Suwar), Qaşan (Kashan) and Cükätaw (Juketau). Modern cities Kazan and Yelabuga were founded as Volga Bulgaria's border fortresses.


Some of the Volga Bulgarian cities still have not been found, but they are mentioned in Russian sources. They are: Ashli (Oshel), Tuxçin (Tukhchin), İbrahim (Bryakhimov), Taw İle. Some of them were ruined during and after the Golden Horde invasion.

The Russian principalities to the west posed the only tangible military threat. In the 11th century, the country was devastated by several Russian raids. Then, at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, the rulers of Vladimir (notably Andrew the Pious and Vsevolod III), anxious to defend their eastern border, systematically pillaged Bulgarian cities. Under Russian pressure from the west, the Bulgars had to move their capital from Bolghar to Bilär.

Demographics

A large part of the region's population included Turkic or Iranian groups such as Suars, Barsil, Bilars, Baranjars and part of Burtas (by ibn Rustah). Modern Chuvashes descend from Suars and Kazan Tatars descend from the Volga Bulgars. Another part comprised Finnic and Magyar (Asagel and Pascatir) tribes, from which Bisermäns probably descend.[5] Ibn Fadlan refers to Volga Bulgaria as Saqaliba which is a general Arabic term for Slavic people. Other researches tie the term to the ethnic name Scythian (or Saka in Persian).[6]

Decline

In September 1223 near Samara an advance guard of Genghis Khan's army under command of Uran, son of Subutai Bahadur, entered Volga Bulgaria but was defeated in the battle of Samara Bend. In 1236, the Mongols returned and in five years had subjugated the whole country, which at that time was suffering from internal war. Henceforth Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Ulus Jochi, later known as the Golden Horde. It was divided into several principalities; each of them became a vassal of the Golden Horde and received some autonomy. By the 1430s, the Khanate of Kazan was established as the most important of these principalities.


According to some historians, over 80% of the country's population was killed during the invasion. The remaining population mostly relocated to the northern areas (territories of modern Chuvashia and Tatarstan). Some autonomous duchies appeared in those areas. The steppe areas of Volga Bulgaria may have been settled by nomadic Kipchaks and Mongols, and the agricultural development suffered a severe decline.

Over time, the cities of Volga Bulgaria were rebuilt and became trade and craft centers of the Golden Horde. Some Bulgarians, primarily masters and craftsmen, were forcibly moved to Sarai and other southern cities of the Golden Horde. Volga Bulgaria remained a center of agriculture and handicraft.

See also

References

External links

  • (Russian) Bariev, R(iza) X. 2005. (Volga Bulgars: History and Culture). Saint Petersburg: Agat.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.