Venezuelan president

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The President of Venezuela (Spanish: Presidente de Venezuela) is both the head of state and also the head of government of Venezuela. The current presidential term is for six years with the constitutionally guaranteed recourse of holding a popular recall referendum anytime within the last three years of a presidential term. On February 15, 2009, a referendum removed the previous restrictions which limited the President to two terms.[1] The current president of Venezuela is Nicolás Maduro, since April 19, 2013.

History

The presidential designation encompasses only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Venezuela following Venezuela's declaration of independence from Spanish colonial rule, which took effect on July 5, 1811. The first president, taking office on July 5, 1811, was actually the president of a triumvirate that rotated the presidency weekly. The person serving as president during the week of July 5 was one of the three signatories of the Declaration of Independence: Cristóbal Mendoza. Mendoza shared the triumvirate with Juan Escalona and Baltasar Padrón.[2][3]

Owing to the profound confusion of the Venezuelan War of Independence and the period of Gran Colombia over what is now Venezuela, this page has gaps between 1814 and 1819. The Congress of Angostura appointed Simón Bolívar "Jefe Supremo de la República de Venezuela" (Supreme Commander of the Republic of Venezuela) from 1819 until 1830. The list below includes interim 'caretaker' as well as regular serving presidents, and democratically installed presidents as well as those installed by other means (e.g.; Marcos Pérez Jiménez).

      Conservative Party       Liberal Party       Independent       Military government       Democratic Action       COPEI       National Convergence       Fifth Republic Movement/United Socialist Party

Picture President Dates in office Form of entry Occupation
José Antonio Páez January 13, 1830 – January 20, 1835 Indirect elections Military general
Andrés Narvarte January 20, 1835 – February 9, 1835 Acting President Lawyer / politician
José María Vargas February 9, 1835 – July 9, 1835 Indirect elections Physician
José María Carreño July 27, 1835 – August 20, 1835 Acting President Military general
José María Vargas August 20, 1835 – April 24, 1836 Restoration Physician
Andrés Narvarte April 24, 1836 – January 20, 1837 Interim caretaker Lawyer / politician
José María Carreño January 20, 1837 – March 11, 1837 Interim caretaker Military general
Carlos Soublette March 11, 1837 – February 1, 1839 Interim caretaker Military general
José Antonio Páez February 1, 1839 – January 28, 1843 Indirect elections Military general
Carlos Soublette January 28, 1843 – January 20, 1847 Indirect elections Military general
José Tadeo Monagas January 20, 1847 – February 5, 1851 Indirect elections Military general
José Gregorio Monagas February 5, 1851 – January 20, 1855 Indirect elections Military general
José Tadeo Monagas January 20, 1855 – March 15, 1858 Indirect elections Military general
Pedro Gual Escandón March 15, 1858 – March 18, 1858 Provisional President Lawyer
Julián Castro March 18, 1858 – August 2, 1859 Coup d'état Military general
Pedro Gual Escandón August 2, 1859 – September 29, 1859 Provisional President Lawyer
Manuel Felipe de Tovar September 29, 1859 – May 20, 1861 Coup d'état (first term);
Direct elections (second term)
Politician
Pedro Gual Escandón May 20, 1861 – August 29, 1861 Provisional President Lawyer
José Antonio Páez August 29, 1861 – June 15, 1863 Dictatorship Military general
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón June 15, 1863 – March 18, 1865 Victory in the Federal War (first term) Military general
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón March 18, 1865 – April 25, 1868 Indirect elections (second term) Military general
Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual April 25, 1868 – June 28, 1868 Provisional President Military officer
Guillermo Tell Villegas June 28, 1868 – February 20, 1869 Provisional President Lawyer / Military
José Ruperto Monagas February 20, 1869 – April 16, 1870 Revolution Military general
Guillermo Tell Villegas April 16, 1870 – April 27, 1870 Provisional President Lawyer / Military
Antonio Guzmán Blanco April 27, 1870 – February 20, 1873 Revolution (first term) Lawyer / Military general
Antonio Guzmán Blanco February 20, 1873 – February 27, 1877 Indirect elections (second term) Lawyer / Military general
Francisco Linares Alcántara February 27, 1877 – November 30, 1878 Indirect elections Military general
José Gregorio Valera November 30, 1878 – February 26, 1879 Provisional President Military general
Antonio Guzmán Blanco February 26, 1879 – May 12, 1880 Election by the Federal States Lawyer / Military general
Antonio Guzmán Blanco May 12, 1880 – 1882 Election by the Federal States Lawyer / Military general
Antonio Guzmán Blanco 1882 – April 26, 1884 Election by the Federal States Lawyer / Military general
Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo April 26, 1884 – September 15, 1886 Elections by the Federal States Military general
Antonio Guzmán Blanco September 15, 1886 – August 8, 1887 Elections by the Federal States Lawyer / Military general
Hermógenes López August 8, 1887 – July 2, 1888 Intermin caretaker Military general
Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl July 2, 1888 – March 19, 1890 Elections by the Federal States Lawyer
Raimundo Andueza Palacio March 19, 1890 – June 17, 1892 Elections by the Federal States Lawyer
Guillermo Tell Villegas June 17, 1892 – August 31, 1892 Provisional President Lawyer / Military
Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido August 31, 1892 – October 7, 1892 Provisional President Lawyer
Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo October 7, 1892 – March 14, 1894 Revolution Military general
Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo March 14, 1894 – February 28, 1898 Elections by the Federal States Military general
Ignacio Andrade February 28, 1898 – October 20, 1899 Direct elections Politician
Cipriano Castro Ruiz October 20, 1899 – December 19, 1908 Revolution Military general
Juan Vicente Gómez December 19, 1908 – August 5, 1913 Coup d'état Military general
José Gil Fortoul August 5, 1913 – April 19, 1914 Appointed provisional president Lawyer
Victorino Márquez Bustillos April 19, 1914 – June 24, 1922 Appointed provisional president[4] Lawyer / politician
Juan Vicente Gómez June 24, 1922 – May 30, 1929 Military general
Juan Bautista Pérez May 30, 1929 – June 13, 1931 Indirect election by the National Assembly Lawyer / magistrate
Juan Vicente Gómez June 13, 1931 – December 17, 1935 Indirect election by the National Assembly Military general
Eleazar López Contreras December 18, 1935 – June 30, 1936 Interim caretaker Military general
Eleazar López Contreras June 30, 1936 – May 5, 1941 Indirect elections Military general
Isaías Medina Angarita May 5, 1941 – October 18, 1945 Indirect elections Military general
Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello October 19, 1945 – February 17, 1948 Coup d'état Politician
Rómulo Gallegos Freire February 17, 1948 – November 24, 1948 Direct elections Writer / Novelist
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud November 24, 1948 – November 13, 1950 Coup d'état Military officer
Germán Suárez Flamerich November 27, 1950 – December 2, 1952 Interim caretaker Lawyer
Marcos Pérez Jiménez December 2, 1952 – January 23, 1958 Indirect elections Military officer
Wolfgang Larrazábal January 23, 1958 – November 14, 1958 Coup d'état Rear admiral
Edgar Sanabria November 14, 1958 – February 13, 1959 Interim caretaker Lawyer
Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello February 13, 1959 – March 13, 1964 Direct elections Politician
50px Raúl Leoni Otero March 13, 1964 – March 11, 1969 Direct elections Lawyer
Rafael Caldera Rodríguez March 11, 1969 – March 12, 1974 Direct elections Lawyer
Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez March 12, 1974 – March 12, 1979 Direct elections Politician
50px Luis Herrera Campins March 12, 1979 – February 2, 1984 Direct elections Lawyer
Jaime Lusinchi February 2, 1984 – February 2, 1989 Direct elections Physician
Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez[5] February 2, 1989 – May 21, 1993 Direct elections Politician
Octavio Lepage Barreto[6] May 21, 1993 – June 5, 1993 Interim president Lawyer / Politician
Ramón José Velásquez June 5, 1993 – February 2, 1994 Interim president Writer
Rafael Caldera Rodríguez February 2, 1994 – February 2, 1999 Direct elections Lawyer
Hugo Chávez Frias February 2, 1999 – January 10, 2001 Direct elections Military officer
(Lt. colonel)
Hugo Chávez Frias January 10, 2001 – January 10, 2007[7] Direct elections Military officer
(Lt. colonel)
Hugo Chávez Frías January 10, 2007 – January 10, 2013 Direct elections Military officer
(Lt. colonel)
Hugo Chávez Frías January 10, 2013 – March 5, 2013[8] Direct elections Military officer
(Lt. colonel)
Nicolás Maduro March 5, 2013 – April 19, 2013 Interim President Bus driver / Union leader[9]
Nicolás Maduro April 19, 2013 – present Direct elections Bus driver / Union leader [9]

2013 election

Main article: Venezuelan presidential election, 2013

The results of the 2013 elections came as a surprise, as Maduro was leading by double digit figures in most opinion polls conducted two weeks before the election. Furthering the unexpected closeness of the race was the fact that Chávez had defeated Capriles comfortably in October 2012 by a margin of more than 10%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Nicolás Maduro Great Patriotic Pole 7,575,506 50.78
Henrique Capriles Radonski Democratic Unity Roundtable 7,302,641 48.95
Eusebio Mendez New Vision for my Country 19,475 0.13
María Bolívar United Democratic Party for Peace and Freedom 13,278 0.08
Reina Sequera Worker's Party 4,229 0.02
Julio Mora Democratic Unity Party 1,928 0.01
Valid votes 14,917,057 99.55
Invalid/blank votes 66,691 0.44
Total 14,983,748 100
Registered voters/turnout 18,904,364 79.78
Source: National Electoral Commission

See also

Notes

References

  • (Spanish)
  • (Spanish) Cuadro de Presidentes Venezolanos
  • (Spanish) Presidentes y jefes de Gobierno
  • (Spanish) Comentarios sobre la Lista de Presidentes

External links

Venezuela portal
Politics portal
  • Official portal for the President
  • Official government site (Government Online)
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