World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Theatre of Pakistan

Article Id: WHEBN0005043272
Reproduction Date:

Title: Theatre of Pakistan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: War in North-West Pakistan, Theatre in Pakistan, National Academy of Performing Arts, Inder Sabha, Theatre of Lebanon
Collection: Asian Drama, Theatre in Pakistan, Unima, Urdu Theatre
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Theatre of Pakistan

This article deals with topics pertaining to theatre in Pakistan. Pakistan has a growing theatre culture, with English and Urdu theatre being the dominant forms.[1]


  • Inder Sabha 1
  • Post independence theatre 2
    • Pakistani literature 2.1
    • Saadat Hasan Manto 2.2
    • Umer Shareef 2.3
    • Farrukh Nigar Aziz 2.4
  • Types of theatre 3
    • Local theatre 3.1
  • Training institutions 4
    • Punjab Lok Rahs 4.1
  • The advent of commercial theatre in Pakistan 5
    • Theatre in the capital 5.1
  • Improvisational theatre 6
    • The Acting Wheel 6.1
    • Black Fish 6.2
    • Modern and Cultural Theater 6.3
    • School plays 6.4
    • Foreign theatre companies 6.5
  • Academies 7
    • NAPA 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Inder Sabha

In 1855, the enactment of the play Inder Sabha (the Heavenly Court of Indra) written by Agha Hasan Amanat in the courtyard of the last Nawab of Oudh, Wajid Ali Shah, marked the beginning of Urdu theatre. The drama dealt with the love story between a fairy and a prince. The Nawab, who was a Kathak dancer and had written theses on stage techniques, composed some of the songs and choreographed the dances for the play. It was a huge success. Its characters (Sabaz Pari (Green Fairy), Kala Deo (Black Devil) and Lal Deo (Red Devil)) live on as a part of the vocabulary of South Asia.[2]

Post independence theatre

Pakistani literature

The distinct voice of Pakistani literature came soon after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Since there were many cultural similarities, Urdu and English Literature was inherited by this new state. Over due course, a literature which was somewhat uniquely Pakistani has emerged in every province. Initially the plays were all about the independence and the atrocities committed on the Muslims by the Hindus and Sikhs but this gradually began to change and the current trend is specifically Pakistani venturing into many different genres.

Saadat Hasan Manto

Manto is arguably the most influential Urdu writer of the 20th century. He was one of the most controversial as well. His work is comparable with D. H. Lawrence. This comparison is made because like Lawrence he also wrote about the topics considered social taboos of his Society. He addressed topics ranging from the socio-economic injustice prevailing in pre- and post-colonial South Asia; he stirred up quite a fury when he wrote about controversial topics of love, sex, incest, prostitution and the typical hypocrisy of a traditional South Asian male. In dealing with these topics, he wasn’t careful to conceal any of the facts and clearly showed the true state of affairs. His short stories were often intricately structured, with vivid satire and a good sense of humor.

Manto was a well known film writer of the Indian cinema and was making good money. He however, chose to abandon his lucrative career and migrated to Pakistan. In the seven years that Manto lived in Lahore he continuously struggled for survival. However, he proved to be a productive individual who gave some of his best writings to the literary world regardless of his domestic situation. It was in Lahore that he wrote many of his best known works.

Manto was primarily known for his short stories of the South Asia, great literature out of the events relating to the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The literature, which came out of the period that followed, is considered to have been progressive in its tone and spirit. According to several critics it had not only evolved its own identity, but also had played a significant role in documenting the hardships and hopes of Pakistan in the latter part of the 20th century.

Manto also wrote plays and many of his stories have been successfully adapted for the stage. Some of his characters have become legends in the minds of theatergoers.

Umer Shareef

During the late 1980s Umer Sharif became the most well known stage performer in Pakistan after his extremely popular 1989 comedy stage plays Bakra Qistoon Pay and Buddha Ghar Pe Hai. In both he starred with another comedy legend Moin Akhter. Bakra Qistoon Pay is considered by critics in India & Pakistan to be the show that made stage plays what they are today in Pakistan. Before the advent of Bakra Qistoon Pay majority stage shows in Pakistan used to be classy with rather poetic dialogs. After Bakra Qistoon Pay stage shows became a vibrant, majorly comical (and often gritty) part of the Pakistani culture. Sharif now host a program The Shareef Show Mubarak Ho on Geo TV.

Farrukh Nigar Aziz

The daughter of Abdul Aziz Falakpaima, Farrukh Nigar Aziz was a known literary figure even before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. She and her sisters were educated along liberal styles of education. These women received opportunities that were somewhat of a rarity in their day. Formal education for Muslim women and having a career in the arts or performing arts was considered not respectable.

Types of theatre

The general complaint in conservative circles is that commercial theatre is lowbrow and thrives on obscene dialogue and dances. The fact is that at least three departments are tasked with monitoring the activities of commercial theatre. From the Punjab Arts Council, which is responsible for vetting the scripts to District Coordination Officers, who are authorized to monitor the screening of plays, to the Home Department that actually takes action against producers, directors, artistes and theatre owners, the dice is loaded against entertainment at every step.”

Local theatre

Commercial theatre is surviving this accusation and, in some cases, even thriving this shows that people want entertainment and are prepared to watch plays despite the hazards of doing so. Just like any demand and supply situation, since there is a demand there will be a supply.

The arrival of commercial theatre in Lahore was in the early 1980s. The joint efforts of Naheed Khanum, Amanullah, Mastana and Baboo Baral ushered in the art the lively dialogues and innovative style was like a breath of fresh air for the citizens. The initial venue for the staging of these plays was Alhamra but a replacement venue had to be sought once Alhamra closed down for renovations in 1981–1982.

Each and every script has to be cleared by the Punjab Arts Council (PAC).

Lahore has five private (Tamaseel, Mehfil, Naz, Crown and Alfalah) and a government theatre (Alhamra). The moral brigade’s claims of vulgarity and calls for closure of commercial theatre have become common in Gujranwala, Faislabad, Multan and Sahiwal. Most of the complaints originate from a small community of zealots while the majority of people enjoy the performances.

In Lahore, most of the audience come from other cities. The theatres are packed on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays. A stage play usually runs for 16 days and earns around two million rupees in that time. Tickets cost from Rs. 200 to Rs. 1,000.

Training institutions

Punjab Lok Rahs

Punjab Lok Rahs started working as an independent alternative theater group in 1986. The group has seen a number of upheavals both internal and external during its history. On average, the group has held a performance every fortnight since its creation.

It started as a group of young men and women, primarily students, that was concerned with the military oppression of arts and cultural activities in Pakistan. The group cherished a society that has gender equity and democratic values, respects all humans and offers equal economic opportunities to all. Rahs believes in organized and conscious efforts to realize this dream. Theater is its medium.

Rahs’ experience in the art of theatre is very deep as well. From staging classical epics to quick response street skits and from working out foreign adaptations to improvising ones with community and from performing at overseas festivals to villages and urban slums, Rahs has touched upon a host of issues. Rahs’ canvas is very wide and diverse as it has dealt with subjects like child marriage and women’s right to marry of their free will and staged plays against arms race and military dictatorship.

Besides experimentation and experience, Rahs has learned theatre from its gurus like Badal Sarkar. Its members have received training from many institutions in other countries.

The group has imparted theatre training to a number of civil society organizations as well. It has supported scores of other organizations by performing for the communities with which they work.

Rahs draws inspiration from Punjab’s indigenous theatre tradition. Its name ‘Rahs’ is the Punjabi word for local form of theatre and its logo shows the basic props of this theatre. The group aims to marry the tradition with modern techniques and concepts and make it an effective tool in the hands of organizations working for social change.

Rahs performs plays only in the mother language of its audience – the people of Punjab. The group believes that the mother language lies at the heart of the issue of cultural identity. The group not only performs but also trains other dramatic societies and community organizations to do theatre as an art and use it as an effective tool of communication.

The advent of commercial theatre in Pakistan

Theatre in the capital

Theatre in Pakistan has been given a professional and commercial face by private production companies that attempt to infuse theatre as a cultural norm in the country. In this respect, the Capital has been exceptionally successful, through the support of the Government and Private Investors, to give a platform to the youth to showcase their talent. 2006 alone saw around eight lavish theatrical productions, and was touted as the year of comedy, as residents of the Capital were treated to a liberal dose of humor and farce.

Improvisational theatre

The Acting Wheel

The Acting Wheel, founded in Jan 2011, is Karachi's first drama club of its kind. It's not a theater company, or a school of any kind. It's simply a group of people passionate about acting, who meet every other week in Karachi to spontaneously act out. The act-ups or act-olutions (like revolutions of The Acting Wheel) consist of giving out scripts to participants and enabling them to spontaneously act out the scripts creatively. Participants also play acting games frequently, including improv and comedy. The blog talks about each act-up

Black Fish

Founded in 2002, Black Fish was the first of its kind improvisational theatre troupe in Pakistan. It had a huge following and was very popular among the youth. The group catered to all age groups.

The troupe used to perform every Sunday but reduced the frequency of their public shows to every fortnight. Even though they did not advertise heavily, the troupe's popularity spread from word of mouth and an occasional radio announcement that helped the shows manage to draw a packed crowd who sometimes had no place to sit, thus, resorting to sitting on the stairs.

Despite being a Karachi-based group, Black Fish managed to take its performances to other Pakistani cities such as Lahore, Islamabad and even Faisalabad.

In 2004 Black Fish was also selected by the British Council to represent Pakistan in an International Youth Theatre Festival Manchester called Contacting The World.

The troupe has worked with Pakistan's leading English Newspaper, Dawn, to put together the first ever Comedy Festival which was held in Karachi in November 2006.

The group has since disbanded and 'Sami Shah', a member of the group is now a standup comedian.

Modern and Cultural Theater

Few names that come up who are still making Theater alive in Pakistan, After Ajoka Theatre and Punjab Lok Rahs, we have individual personalities who are teaching and doing theatre in Pakistan to make us proud. In these we have Omair Rana, Hassan Raza, Waleed Zaidi, Osman Khalid Butt, Huma Safdar and more.

Omair Rana is an Actor/Director/Producer/Teacher/Trainer.

Hassan Raza is a Writer [Theater, Stand Up Jokes and Debates], actor [theatre, T.V & film], theatre-director, a Stand Up Comedian, a Teacher, Drama Coach, Theatre Trainer and an Improviser Comedian. Hassan has done plays and adaptations of Neil Simon, Arthur Miller, Ashfaq Ahmed, Shahid Nadeem, Ray Cooney, Barry Levinson. Imtiaz Ali Taj and many more Greek Tragedies, Courtroom Drama, Broadway, Farce and Original Performances. He is the writer of "The Empty Chair", "Zulm Sehta Pakistan", "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner" and more. His immortalized performances include "Hurdle Over Murder", "The Asylum", "Dengue-The Play", "Teesri Awaz", "Back to the Future", "Nizaam Saka", "The Empty Chair" and many more.

Osman Khalid Butt is a Writer [poetry, short prose, film], actor [theatre & film], Director, choreographer & vlogger based in Islamabad who drinks too much Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster for his own good. His forever immortalized performances are "Moulin Rouge", "Count of Monte Cristo", "Beauty and the Beast", "The Pillowman" and Many more.

These people also have the privilege Ilaaj-e-Zid Dastiyaab Hai (aka Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew in Urdu) -2012 (directed by Haissam Hussain - Theatre Walley/Kashf Foundation) The play was selected as Pakistan's entry to the Cultural Olympiad preceding the London Olympics and was performed at the Globe (Also known as Shakespeare Globe), London to rave reviews.

School plays

Each year, the Old Grammarians Society (OGS) gets together and puts up a play at the PACC. These plays are usually in English and the audiences are mostly Grammarians. These plays act as sort of a reunion for all the current students to get together in a single place and feel a sense of unity with their predecessors.

The plays consist of actors who are the alumni of the old school and are to a degree quite seasoned in their vocation. The props and settings of the plays are of a high standard and this explains the cost of the tickets which range from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1000 or more. This explains the kind of audience that is expected.

These plays are popularized through word of mouth.

Foreign theatre companies

At the Lahore World Performing Arts Festival the Euro Theatre Central performed for the fifth time. It had performed a German play dialogues of which were learnt by the troupe in English for the benefit of the local audience. The play entitled "Liebesgeflüster" (Raaz and Nias) from Bonn to Lahore. The sponsor of the festival was Rafi Peer. This attracted a huge amount of attention from the locals. The German ambassador even made the journey from Islamabad for the Pakistani premier.

There were artists from Switzerland, Germany and the Wall Street Theatre group from Cologne/Aachen with its Anglo-Saxon two-man artistic comedy show is perfect proof of the fact that humour. A youth group from Uzbekistan was also present along with many Indian and Pakistani dancers and performers.



Napa (National Academy of Performing Arts) is the only performing arts academy in Pakistan under chairman Zia Mohyeddin. NAPA's mission is to restore the sanctity of professions relating to the performing arts. NAPA intends to nurture the talent available across the country through a strong curriculum, offering comprehensive courses - and workshops conducted by eminent practitioners - in music (vocal and instrumental) and theatre arts.[3]

See also


  1. ^ Theatre in Pakistan: From English to Urdu
  2. ^ South Asian arts:: Theatre in Pakistan - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ]
  3. ^

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.