Syro-Malabar

Syrian Malabar Catholic Church
Total population
3.8 million[1]
Founder
St. Thomas the Apostle
Regions with significant populations
Religions
Eastern Catholicism
Scriptures
Bible
Languages
Vernacular:
Malayalam
Liturgical:
Syriac(Suriyani), Malayalam, English

The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church (Syriac: ܥܹܕܬܵܐ ܕܡܲܠܲܒܵܪ ܣܘܼܪܝܵܝܵܐ (Edtha d'Malabar Suryaya or Church of Malabar Syrians)) is an East Syrian Rite, Major Archiepiscopal Church in India in full communion with the Catholic Church. It is one of the 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in the Catholic Church. It is the largest of the Saint Thomas Christian denominations with around 4 million believers and traces its origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.[1][2][3][4][5] It is also the second largest Eastern Catholic Church in communion with the Bishop of Rome.[6]

The church is headed by the Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly, Cardinal Mar George Alencherry Bava. Saint Alphonsa is the first canonised saint from the Church. The members of the Church are known as Nazaranis or Marthoma Suriyani Nazarani. Template:Nasrani people

History


Origin of St. Thomas Christians

It is believed that St. Thomas the Apostle (Mar Thoma shleeha) landed at Kodungalloor (Muziris) in 52 A. D. and established Christian communities in different parts of India and died at Mylapur in 72 A. D.[7] According to tradition, he founded seven churches or communities in Kerala; at Kodungalloor, Niranam, Kollam, Chayal, Kottakkavu (North Paravur), Kokkamangalam and Palayoor.[8]

East Syrian relationship

From early centuries the Church of St. Thomas Christians came into communication with the Christian communities that came to be known as the Church of the East.[9] This relationship made the St. Thomas Christians share the liturgical, spiritual and other ecclesiastical traditions with the Church of the East (therefore they are classified as being of the East Syrian Rite). The Christians of St. Thomas kept their distinctive character especially in Church administration and socio-cultural and ascetic- spiritual life.[10] At least from the 4th century until the end of the 16th century the Bishops of the Church of Malabar were sent from the East Syrian Church,[11] appointed by the Patriarch of the Church of the East.[12] While the bishops originally hailing from Persia who arrived here were placed in charge of liturgy, the administration of the church remained under the control of the local Archdeacon, who was also the head of the local community.[10]

The bishops who came from the East Syrian Church, were concerned with spiritual matters. Essentially, the Thomas Christians followed three distinct ways of activity in their religious sphere: their liturgy was of the East Syrian Rite:their culture was purely Indian:they had their own style of life. The governance of the Church was through Palliyogam, Synod, etc. as was prevalent in Oriental Churches.[13]

Arrival of Portuguese in Malabar


The Portuguese Admiral Vasco da Gama arrived in Calicut on 20 May 1498.[14] When Gama and the Portuguese missionaries arrived they found no Christians in the country except in Malabar Coast (modern day Kerala). The Christians they found were St. Thomas Christians. The Christians were friendly to Portuguese missionaries at first; there were exchange of gifts between them, and these groups were delighted at their common faith.[15]

Later, due to certain differences, mainly in the liturgy, the relations between the missionaries and local St. Thomas Christians became increasingly strained. Under the Padroado (patronage) agreement with the Holy See the Portuguese missionaries started to interfere in day to day operations of the church and things took a turn for the worse. They accused the Indian Christians of heresy and schism (also see: Schism in Christianity); and attempted to introduce the Latin customs and Latin manner of ecclesiastical administration, severing the East Syrian connection.[16]

The Portuguese established a Roman Catholic (Latin Church) diocese in Goa (1534) and another in Cochin (1558) with the hope of bringing the St. Thomas Christians under Latin Catholic jurisdiction. At a Goan Synod held in 1585, it was decided to introduce the Latin liturgy and practices among the Thomas Christians. During the Synod of Diamper of 1599, the Portuguese Archbishop, Don Alexis Menezes succeeded in appointing a Latin bishop to govern the St. Thomas Christians. The Portuguese padroado (patronage) was extended over them.[17] The strife between the Portuguese missionaries and the indigenous Christians and their Mesopotamian prelates was of an ecclesiological and jurisdictional character.[18] Attempts to resist the Latinization process were branded as heretical. Under their Archdeacon, the Thomas Christians resisted, and, consequently, the once united Church in full communion with the East Syrian Patriarch ended up in various denominations.[17]

Divisions among Saint Thomas Christians

A protest took place in 1653 with the Coonan Cross Oath. Under the leadership of Archdeacon Thomas, the Thomas Christians publicly took an oath that they would not obey the Jesuit bishops.[19]

Rome sent Carmelites in two groups from the Propagation of the Faith to Malabar headed by Fr. Sebastiani and Fr. Hyacinth. Fr. Sebastiani arrived first in 1655. He began to deal directly with the Archdeacon, Mar Thoma I. Fr. Sebastiani gained the support of many, especially with the support of Parambil Mar Chandy, Alexandar Kadavil and the Vicar of Muttam. These were the three councilors of Mar Thoma I, who were reconciled with Gracia (SJ) before the arrival of Sebastaini, according to Jesuit reports.[19]

Between 1661 and 1662, out of the 116 churches, the Carmelites reclaimed eighty-four churches, leaving Archdeacon Mar Thomas I with thirty-two churches. The eighty-four churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syro Malabar Church has descended. The other thirty-two churches and their congregations represented the nucleus from which the Syriac Orthodox (Jacobites & Orthodox), Thozhiyur, Mar Thoma (Reformed Syrians), Syro Malankara Catholics have originated.[20]

In 1665 Mar Gregorios, a Bishop sent by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, arrived in India. The dissident group under the leadership of the Archdeacon welcomed him.[21] Though most of the St. Thomas Christians gradually relented in their strong opposition to the Western control, the arrival of the Bishop Mar Gregory of the Syriac Orthodox Church in 1665 marked the beginning of a formal schism among the St. Thomas Christians. Those who accepted the West Syrian theological and liturgical tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch of Mar Gregory became known as the Jacobite, The Syrian Catholics remained in communion with Rome and later came to be known as the Syro Malabar Church.[21]

Restoration of the Syro-Malabar hierarchy

After the split in the church community, some priests and laymen have attempted to persuade the hierarchy to improve the identity of the local church and for the appointment of bishops from local priests. To represent their position, Kerala's Syrian Catholics Joseph Kariattil and Paremmakkal Thomma Kathanar went to Rome in 1778. While they were in Europe, Kariatty Joseph Kathanar was installed in Portugal as the Archbishop of Kodungalloor Archdiocese. While journeying home, they stayed in Goa where Kariattil died before he could formally take charge. Before he died, Kariattil appointed Kathanar as the Administrator of Kodungalloor Archdiocese after him. The new administrator ran the affairs of the church establishing his headquarters at Angamaly. In 1792, the headquarters of the Archdiocese was shifted to Vadayar dodging the invasion of Tippu Sultan. In the last four years of his life, Thomma Kathanar managed church administration from his own parish, Ramapuram.

After being under Chaldean bishops earlier and under Latin Church Roman Catholic bishops from 1599, St. Thomas Christians got their own dioceses from 1887. They came to be known as the Syro Malabar Catholics from that point on, to differentiate them from the Latin Church Catholics in Kerala. The Syro Malabar Hierarchy was restored on 21 December 1923 with Mar Augustine Kandathil as the first Metropolitan and Head of the Church.[22]

Time line of events

Time line of events

  • 1 Ancient Era
  • 2 Portuguese Era
  • 3 Era of Divisions
  • 4 Arrival of the Protestants and further splits
  • 5 Era of Self-governance
  • 6 A Sui iuris Church.
Main article: Syro Malabar Timeline

Syro-Malabar Identity

The Syro-Malabar identity is unique to the state of Kerala in India and its people. According to Fr. Placid Podipara "they are Hindu in culture, Christian in religion and Syro-Oriental in worship". The head of the Church of St. Thomas Christians, sent by the Assyrian Church of the East Syrian/Chaldean church assumed the title The Metropolitan of All India.Term 'Syro Malabar' denotes 'Syrians of Malabar'.

Faith and communion of Syro-Malabarians

The St. Thomas Christians got their bishops from the Assyrian Church of the East/Chaldean Church from ca. 500 AD till the end of the sixteenth century, until it was stopped by the Portuguese Roman Catholics (Latin Church) in 1597, after the death of Mar Abraham.

Liturgy

As per the East Syriac tradition, liturgical day of the Syro-Malabar Church starts at sunset (6 p. m.). Also the worshiper has to face the east while worshiping.[23]

According to the East Syriac tradition, the following are the seven times of prayer:

  • Ramsha or the Evening Liturgy (6 p. m.)
  • Lelya or the Night Liturgy (9 p. m.)
  • Qala d-Shahra or the Vigil Liturgy (3 a. m.)
  • Sapra or the Morning Liturgy (6 a. m.)
  • Quta'a or the Third Hour Liturgy (9 a. m.)
  • Endana or the Noon Liturgy (12 p. m.)
  • D-Bathsha Shayin or the Ninth Hour Liturgy (3 p. m.)

The Holy Mass, which is called Holy Qurbana in East Syriac Aramaic and means 'Eucharist', is celebrated in its solemn form on Sundays and special occasions. During the celebration of the Qurbana, priests and deacons put on elaborate vestments which are unique to the Syro-Malabar Church.

Restoration of East Syrian liturgy

In the second half of 20th century, there was a movement for better understanding of the liturgical rites. A restored Eucharistic liturgy, drawing on the original East Syrian sources, was approved by Pope Pius XII in 1957 and for the first time on the feast of St. Thomas on July 3, 1962, the vernacular, Malayalam(Replacing Suriyani), was introduced for the celebration of the Syro-Malabar rite Mass.[24] Currently they celebrate the Divine Liturgy of Addai and Mari in Malayalam, Syriac or English.

The Latinization of the Syro-Malabar rite churches was brought to a head when in 1896 Ladislaus Zaleski, the Apostolic Delegate to India, requested permission to translate the Roman Pontifical into Syriac. This was the choice of the Malabar prelates, who chose it over the East Syrian Rite and West Syrian Rite pontificals. Various problems and concerns delayed the approval of this translation, until in 1934 Pope Pius XI stated that Latinization was no longer to be encouraged among Eastern Rite Catholics.[25] He initiated a process of liturgical reform that sought to restore the oriental nature of the Latinized Syro-Malabar rite.[26] A restored Eucharistic liturgy, drawing on the original East Syrian sources, was approved by Pius XII in 1957 and introduced in 1962.

The church uses one of several Bible translations into Malayalam.

Liturgical calendar

Syro Malabar Church has its own liturgical year. It is ordered according to the flow of salvation history. It focuses on the historical life of Jesus.[27] There are nine seasons for the liturgical year. They are:

  1. Annunciation (Subara)
  2. Epiphany (Denha)
  3. Great Fast (Sawma Rabba)
  4. Resurrection (Qyamta)
  5. Apostles (Slihe)
  6. Summer (Qaita)
  7. Elijah-Cross (Elijah-Sliba)Moses (Muse)
  8. Dedication of the Church (Qudas-Edta)

Major feasts

Major feasts of the Church are,[28]

  • Dukrana of our Father in Faith - Mar Thoma Shliha Commemorated on July 3
  • Marth Alphonsa - commemorated 28 July
  • Mar Kuriakose Elias Chavara - commemorated 3 January
  • Mar Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly – commemorated 5 October
  • Blessed Euphrasia - commemorated 29 August
  • Mar Bartholomeo Sleeha - commemorated 24 August
  • Marth Shmoni and her 7 Children - commemorated 21 August
  • The Assumption of Marth Mariam(Shoonaya) - commemorated on 15 August
  • Transfiguration(Geliyana) - commemorated 6 August
  • Mar Addai and Mar Mari - commemorated on the Second Friday of Qaita (Summer)
  • The 12 Apostles of our Lord, Iso' Misiha - commemorated 19 July
  • The 70 Apostles - commemorated 17 July
  • Mar Quriaqos and mother Yolethe - commemorated 15 July
  • Mar Aprem- Commemorated - commemorated 9 June
  • Blessed Mariam Thresia - commemorated 8 June
  • Holy Pentecost - commemorated on 31 May
  • The Ascension of our Lord, Iso' Misiha(Sulaqa) - commemorated 21 May
  • Mar Addai Shliha - commemorated 10 May
  • Mar Geevarghese Sahada - commemorated 24 April
  • New Sunday - commemorated 19 April
  • All Saints Day - commemorated on the first Friday of the Season of Resurrection
  • Entry of our Lord, Iso' Misiha into Jerusalem - Oshana Sunday
  • The Annunciation of Marth Mariam(Subara) - commemorated 25 March
  • Remembrance of all Departed Faithful( Kol Anidhe) - commemorated on Last Friday of Denha
  • The feast of Denha, the Epiphany - commemorated on 6 January
  • The Nativity of our Lord, God and Saviour Iso M'siha (Yaldha) - commemorated 25 December
  • Mar Thoma Sliba - commemorated 18 December
  • Immaculate Conception of Marth Mariam - commemorated 8 December
  • Mar Augustinose Kunjachan - commemorated 16 October
  • Passover Feast (Pesha)

Syro-Malabar major archiepiscopal curia

The curia[29] of the Syro-Malabar Church began to function in March 1993 at the archbishop’s house of Ernakulam-Angamaly. Later, on 27 May 1995, it was shifted to new premises at Mount St. Thomas near Kakkanad, Kochi. The newly constructed curial building was opened on 3 July 1998.

The administration of the Syro-Malabar Church has executive and judicial roles. The major archbishop, officials, various commissions, committees, and the permanent synod form the executive part. The permanent synod and other offices are formed in accordance with the CCEO. The officials include the chancellor, vice-chancellor, and other officers. Various commissions are appointed by the major archbishop: Liturgy, Pastoral care of the migrant and Evangelisation, Particular Law, Catechism, Ecumenism, Catholic Doctrine, Clergy and Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. The members of the commissions are ordinarily bishops. But there are also priests in different commissions. For judicial activities there is the major archiepiscopal ordinary tribunal formed in accordance with CCEO and it has a statutes and sufficient personnel with a president, as its head. At present, Rev. Dr. Mathew Kochupurackal is the president. The Major archiepiscopal curia functions in the curial building in Kerala, India. They have prepared the particular law for their Church and promulgated part by part in Synodal News, the official Bulletin of this Church. There are statutes for the permanent synod, for the superior and ordinary tribunals. Regarding economo, CCEO c. 122 § 2 is specific in the particular law, that the term of the office shall be five years and the same person shall not be appointed for more than two terms consecutively.[30]

Saints, Blesseds, Venerables, Servants of God[31]



Saints

  • Mar Thoma Shliha
  • Marth Alphonsa- Eparchy of Palai - canonized on 12 October 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI.

Beatified people

Venerables

  • Mar Thomas Kurialachery - Archeparchy of Changanassery - First Bishop of Changanassery (1872-1925)
  • Mar Mathew Kadalikattil (1872-1935)

Servants of God

  • Mar Mathew Makil, (1851-1914)
  • Mar Joseph Vithayathil, (1865-1964)
  • Mar Tommiyachan Poothathil, (1871-1943)
  • Mar Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly (1876-1929)
  • Mar Augustine John Ukken (1880-1956)
  • Mar Joseph C. Panjikaran (1888-1949)
  • Mar Antony Thachuparampil (1894-1963)
  • Mar Mathew Kavukatt (1904-1969)
  • Marth Maria Celine Kannanaikal (1931-1957)
  • Marth Rani Maria (1954-1995)
  • Mar Thommachen Puthenparampil

List of Eparchies

There are 29 eparchies. Five of them are Archeparchies at present – Ernakulam-Angamaly, Changanacherry, Trichur, Tellicherry and Kottayam. There are other 13 eparchies – Bhadravathi, Belthangady, Irinjalakuda, Kanjirapally, Kothamangalam, Idukki, Mananthavady, Mandya, Palai, Palghat, Ramanathapuram, Thamarassery and Thuckalay within the proper territory of the Major Archiepiscopal Church. There are 12 eparchies outside Kerala – Adilabad, Bijnor, Chanda, Faridabad,Gorakhpur, Jagdalpur, Kalyan, Rajkot, Sagar, Satna, Ujjain and the St. Thomas Eparchy of Chicago in the United States of America.[32]

Metropolitan archeparchies

The believers of this church are organized under 5 Archdioceses. All five are in Kerala.

Eparchies

Statistics

The number of Syro Malabar Church institutions and personnel[33]
Institutions #
Parishes 3224
Semi- Parishes 539
Missions 490
Institutes of Consecrated Life- Men & Women 53
Major & Minor Seminary 71
Regular,Technical & Other Colleges 691
Teachers’ Training Institutes 24
Engineering Colleges

Higher Secandary & Primary Schools

29

2981

Kindergartens 1685
Non-formal & Adult Education 503
Special Schools 4021
Health Care Institutions 700
Nurses Training Schools 44
Hospitals,Dispensaries & Health Centers

Medical Colleges

670

5

Specialized Health Care Centers,Incurables & Leprosy Care Centers 54
Old age Homes 211
Children’s Homes 185
Orphanages 230
Rehabilitation Centers and other institutions 1616
Total 13,805
Personnel
Religious sisters 35000
Religious Brothers 6836
Diocesan and religious priests 9121
Bishops 51
Seminarians (men studying for the priesthood) 2907
Major Arch Bishop 1
Total 51,097

According to "Annuario Pontificio"- The Pontifical year Book for 2008, there are about 49,57,779 members in Syro Malabar Church.[32]

Within the proper territory

There are sixteen eparchies within the proper territory of the Syro Malabar Church.

Archeparchy of Ernakulam-Angamaly has 510,000 members with 347 parishes, 731 religious/secular priests, 632 male religious and 4935 female religious. Archeparchy of Trichur has 471,328 members with 195 parishes, 418 religious/secular priests, 358 male religious and 3315 female religious. Eparchy of Idukki has 400,000 members with 129 parishes, 119 religious/secular priests, 109 male religious and 1320 female religious.

Archeparchy of Changanacherry has 390,000 members with 266 parishes, 615 religious/secular priests, 534 male religious and 2705 female religious. Eparchy of Palai has 348,128 members with 169 parishes, 502 religious/secular priests, 127 male religious and 3312 female religious. Archeparchy of Tellicherry has 317,782 members with 222 parishes, 293 religious/secular priests, 263 male religious and 1664 female religious.. Eparchy of Irinjalakuda has 258,200 members with 128 parishes, 233 religious/secular priests, 132 male religious and 2350 female religious.

Eparchy of Kothamangalam has 217,420 members with 115 parishes, 242 religious/secular priests, 163 male religious and 2210 female religious. Eparchy of Kanjirapally has 192,000 members with 136 parishes, 314 religious/secular priests, 210 male religious and 1840 female religious. Archeparchy of Kottayam has 175,300 members with 149 parishes, 161 religious/secular priests, 107 male religious and 1233 female religious. Eparchy of Mananthavady has 170,100 members with 140 parishes, 413 religious/secular priests, 358 male religious and 1546 female religious. Eparchy of Thamarasserry has 129,600 members with 128 parishes, 247 religious/secular priests, 257 male religious and 1321 female religious.. Eparchy of Palghat has 68,004 members with 106 parishes, 167 religious/secular priests, 82 male religious and 1360 female religious.[32]

According to a study conducted, in Kerala about 30 percent of the Syro Malabar Church members lived in the erstwhile Cochin State. The remaining 70 percent lived in Travancore state. In the Travancore State, Meenachil Taluk had the largest proportion, followed by Changanaserry Taluk. Erstwhile Cochin State, Meenachil and Changanaserry together had 56 percent of the total Syro Malabar Population. Kottayam, Muvattupuzha, Kanjirappally, Thodupuzha, Kothamangalam, Cherthala, Mukundapuram (irinjalakkuda-chalakkudy), Wadakkancherry, Thrissur, North Parur, Alwaye, Kunnathunadu, Ambalapuzha, Kuttanad, Peerumedu, Nedumkandam and Devikulam etc. are the prominent taluks.[32]

Outside the proper territory

There are eleven eparchies outside the proper territory of the Syro Malabar Church.

Eparchy of Kalyan has 100,000 members with 106 parishes, 146 religious/secular priests, 105 male religious and 270 female religious. St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Chicago, USA has 85,000 members with 11 parishes, 45 religious/secular priests, 13 male religious and 16 female religious. Eparchy of Chanda has 14,079 members with 5 parishes, 51 religious/secular priests, 182 male religious and 352 female religious. Eparchy of Adilabad, has 13,273 members with 25 parishes, 50 religious/secular priests, 41 male religious and 143 female religious. Eparchy of Rajkot has 12,850 members with 12 parishes, 140 religious/secular priests, 142 male religious and 421 female religious.

Syro Malabar Religious Congregations

The Religious Congregations are divided in the Eastern Catholic Church Law (Code of Canons of the Oriental Churches – CCEO) as Monasteries, Hermitages, Orders, Congregations, Societies of Common Life in the Manner of Religious, Secular Institutes and Societies of Apostolic Life.

List of prominent Syro-Malabar Catholics in history

Shared history with other Saint Thomas Christians

Main article: St. Thomas Christians

See also

References

External links

References and bibliography

  • ASSEMANI, Bibliotheca Orientalis (Rome, 1719–28); DE SOUZA.
  • Orientale Conquistado (2 vols., Indian reprint, Examiner Press, Bombay).
  • Gouvea, Jornada do Arcebispo Aleixo de Menezes quando foy as Serra do Malaubar (Coimbra, 1606).
  • Fr. tr. De Glen, Histoire Orientale etc. (Brussels, 1609); DU JARRIC.
  • Thesaurus rerum mirabilium in India Orient (3 vols., Cologne, 1615).
  • India Orientalis Christiana (Rome, 1794).
  • Mackenzie, Christianity in Tranvancore, with Census Report of 1901 (Trivandrum).Ed.& Reprinted, Prof. George Menachery in the Nazranies i.e. The Indian Church History Classics I, 1998.
  • Medlycott, India and the Apostle St. Thomas (London, 1905).Ed.& Reprinted, Prof. George Menachery in the Nazranies i.e. The Indian Church History Classics I, 1998.
  • Thalian, G. `(PDF)
  • Menachery G (1973) ISBN 81-87132-06-X, Lib. Cong. Cat. Card. No. 73-905568; B.N.K. Press – (has some 70 lengthy articles by different experts on the origins, development, history, culture... of these Christians, with some 300 odd photographs).Vol.1, 1982. Vol.3, 2010.
  • Mundadan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India.
  • Podipara, Placid J. (1970) "The Thomas Christians". London: Darton, Longman and Tidd, 1970. (is a readable and exhaustive study of the St. Thomas Christians.)
  • Philip, E.M. (1908) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas (1908; Changanassery: Mor Adai Study Center, 2002).
  • Aprem, Mar. (1977) The Chaldaean Syrian Church in India. Trichur, Kerala, India: Mar Narsai, 1977.
  • Menachery, Professor George. (2000) Kodungallur – The Cradle of Christianity In India, Thrissur: Marthoma Pontifical Shrine.
  • Menachery, Professor George & Snaitang,Dr. Oberland (2012)"India's Christian Heritage".The Church History Association of India, Dharmaram College,Bangalore.
  • Acts of St. Thomas (Syriac) MA. Bevan, London, 1897
  • Tisserant, E. (1957) Eastern Christianity in India: A History of the Syro-Malabar Church from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Trans. and ed. by E. R. Hambye. Westminster, MD: Newman Press.
  • Michael Geddes, (1694) A Short History of the Church of Malabar together with the Synod of Diamper, London. Ed. Prof. George Menachery in the Nazranies i.e. The Indian Church History Classics I, 1998.
  • Puthur, B. (ed.) (2002): The Life and Nature of the St Thomas Christian Church in the Pre-Diamper Period (Cochi, Kerala).
  • T.K Velu Pillai, (1940) "The Travancore State Manual"; 4 volumes; Trivandrum
  • Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol. I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. [ISBN 81-87133-05-8].
  • Menachery, George. Glimpses of Nazraney Heritage.SARAS 2005 Ollur.
  • Palackal, Joseph J. Syriac Chant Traditions in South India. Ph.d, Ethnomusicology, City University of New York, 2005.
  • Joseph, T. K. The Malabar Christians and Their Ancient Documents. Trivandrum, India, 1929.
  • Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
  • Thomas P. J; (1932) "Roman Trade Centres in Malabar", Kerala Society Papers, II.
  • Marco Polo.(1298) LATHAM, R. (TRANSL.) "The Travels" Penguin Classics 1958
  • Bjorn Landstrom (1964) "The Quest for India", Double day English Edition, Stockholm.
  • Francis Eluvathingal (ed), Syro-Malabar Church Since the Eastern Code, Mary Matha Publications, Trichur, 2003.
  • Francis Eluvathingal, "Patriarchal and Major Archiepiscopal Curia in the Eastern Catholic Legilations based on CCEO Canons 114–125" ORISI, Kottayam, 2009.

External links

  • Syro-Malabar Church
  • Archdiocese of Thrissur
  • Archdiocese of Kottayam
  • Archdiocese of Changanacherry
  • Archdiocese of Ernakulam-Angamaly
  • Archdiocese of Tellicherry
  • The website for Synod of Diamper
  • Indian Christianity : Books by Geddes, Mackenzie, Medlycott, &c.
  • Syro malabar mission in Chennai
  • Syro Malabar Church in Australia
  • Nazraney Heritage
  • Syro Malabar Church in Qatar
  • Syro Malabar Matrimony

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