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Siberian Tatars

Siberian Tatars
Сыбырлар / Sibirlar
Regions with significant populations
 Russia 6,779[1] (2010 census)
Languages
Siberian Tatar, Russian, Tatar
Religion
Sunni Islam, Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Chulyms, Teleuts, Shors, Khakas, Selkups, Kets, Khanty, Mansi
Flag of the Siberian tatar people

Siberian Tatars (Siberian Tatar: Сыбырлар; Sibirlar) refers to the indigenous Siberian population of the forests and steppes of South Siberia stretching from somewhat east of the Ural Mountains to the Yenisey river in Russia. The Siberian Tatars call themselves Yerle Qalyq or older inhabitants to distinguish themselves from newer Volga Tatar immigrants to the region.[2]

The word “Tatar” or “Tadar” is also used as a self-designation by some closely related Siberian ethnic groups; namely the Chulyms, Khakas people, Shors, Teleuts.

According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Tatars in Siberia, but only 9,611 of them are the indigenous Siberian Tatars. At least 400,000 of them are Volga Tatars who settled in Siberia during periods of colonization.[3] The Volga Tatars are an ethnic group, native to the Volga-Ural region.

As of yet, the Siberian Tatars don't have available education in Siberian Tatar language. In local schools the lessons are taught only in Russian and Volga Tatar languages, which itself are not indigenous to the area and were brought over a couple of centuries ago together with the Russian and Volga Tatar settlers.

Contents

  • Anthropology 1
  • Population 2
  • Origin and ethnogenesis 3
  • Siberian Tatar Language 4
  • Groups 5
    • Tobol-Irtysh Tatars 5.1
    • Baraba Tatars 5.2
    • Tomsk Tatars 5.3
  • Siberian Bukharans 6
  • Famous Siberian Tatars 7
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • External links 10
  • References 11

Anthropology

Siberian Tatars represent West-Sibirid anthropological type, although among Baraba Tatar group classical Tungid type can also sometimes be found. Later ethnogenetic processes during the Middle Ages and later periods make Siberian Tatars anthropologically close to Sarts, Kazakhs and Bashkirs. Dermatoglyphic material can be attributed to the circle of the mixed Mongoloid-Caucasoid forms with a significant predominance of the Mongoloid component.

Zabolotnie (Yaskolbinsk) Tatars of the Tobol-Irtysh group are extremely close to the Khanty people.

Population

Siberian Tatars historically lived in the vast territory stretching from around the Yenisei river all the way to the area laying somewhat east of the Ural mountains. According to the ambassadors of the Siberian Khanate ruler Yediger Khan who visited Moscow in 1555, the population of "the black people" not counting the aristocracy was 30,700. In a decree concerning tribute issued by Ivan the Terrible the number was given as 40,000.

According to the results of the 1897 All-Russia Census there were 56,957 Siberian Tatars in Tobolsk guberniya. This was the last true information about the population of the Siberian Tatars, as in the other censuses the other Tatar immigrants from the other regions of Russia were also included. It should also be noted that the Siberian Tatars tried to avoid the census as much as possible as they believed that it is was an attempt to force them to pay the Yasak (tribute).[4] Their population in the territory of the current Tyumen Oblast in 1926 was recorded as 70,000, in 1959 as 72,306, in 1970 as 102,859, 136,749 in 1979, 227,423 in 1989 and 242,325 in 2002. According to the results of the 2002 Russian Census there were 385,949 Tatars living in the oblasts discussed above (their territory roughly corresponds to the historical territory of the Siberian Khanate). Of these Tatars only 9,289 identified themselves as Siberian Tatars.

2002 Russian Census revealed only 9,611 Siberian Tatars in Russia. Whereas in some publications their number is shown in the range of 190,000-210,000.[5] Such significant discrepancy is explained by the fact that the immigrants from the other ethnic groups who are also called Tatar by the Russians were also included in the figure, though most of whom were Volga Tatars.[3]

Origin and ethnogenesis

The term Siberian Tatar covers three autochthonous groups, all Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi madhab, found in southern Siberia. They are remnants of the Khanate of Sibir, which was conquered by Russia in 1582. Geographically, the Siberian Tatars are divided into three main groups, each speaking their own dialect.[2] Although the Siberian Tatar language has been sometimes considered a dialect of Tatar; detailed study demonstrates that Siberian Tatar idioms are quite remote from Volga Tatar by origin. Siberian Tatars' ancestry was partly from Turkic and Mongol peoples, but their main ancestors are Samoyedic,[6] Ket, and Ugric tribes.

Siberian Tatar Language

Siberian Tatar language is, due to the Kipchakization processes during the Middle Ages, many times classified as belonging to the Kypchak–Nogay group of the Kypchak languages,[7] although there are approximately as many elements which could be classified in the Upper Altaian language group. Beginning in the 12th century, the Siberian Tatar language received some Karluk influences. Those Siberian Tatars who are living in ethnically mixed villages where were, in the periods after Russian colonization, later settčed more numerous Volga Tatars, have also received minor Kypchak-Bulgar language influence.

Siberian Tatar language has different dialects.[7] Since the penetration of Gabdulkhay Akhatov.

Groups

Tobol-Irtysh Tatars

The Tobol-Irtysh Tatars group is the most numerous out of all 3 groups of Siberian Tatars. They live in the Tyumen, Kurgan and Omsk Oblasts.

The sub-groups are: Zabolotnie (Yaskolbinsk), Tobol, Kurdak-Sargat, Tara, Tyumen-Turin.

Baraba Tatars

Their self-designation is Baraba, and they are found mainly in the steppe of Baraba, in the Novosibirsk Oblast. Their population is around 8,000.

The sub-groups are: Baraba-Turazh, Lyubey-Tunus, Terenin-Choy.

Tomsk Tatars

The Tomsk Tatars are indigenous population of Tomsk, Kemerovo and to some extent Novosibirsk Oblasts.

The sub-groups are: Kalmak, Chat, Eushta.

Siberian Bukharans

The Bukhalyks, literally "those from the city of Bukhara" are descendents of 15th- and 16th-century fur merchant colonies from Central Asia. These settlers have now merged entirely with Siberian Tatars.

Famous Siberian Tatars

  • Minsalim Timergazeev - sculptor;
  • Anvar Kaliev - WWII USSR hero;
  • Iskander Dautov - WWII USSR hero;
  • Khamit Neatbakov (Neotbakov) - WWII USSR hero;
  • Khabibulla Yakin - holder of the Order of glory;
  • Tamerlan Ishmukhamedov - WWII USSR hero;
  • Raushan Abdullin - hero of the Russian Federation;
  • Nafigulla Ashirov - mufti, president of the spiritual association of Muslims of the Asiatic part of Russia;
  • Galima Shugurova - rhythmic gymnast;
  • Abdurresid Ibrahim - imam, pan-Islamist, journalist, traveller;
  • Foat-Tach Valeev - WWII USSR veteran, colonel, pedagogist, journalist, historian, sibirologist, ethnographer, professor;
  • Yakub Zankiev - writer;
  • Georgian ancestry);
  • Anas Gaitov - writer;
  • Rakip Ibragimov - poet;

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (Russian)
  2. ^ a b The Siberian Tatars in Muslims of the Soviet empire : a guide / Alexandre Bennigsen [and] S. Enders Wimbush pages 231 to 232 Bloomington : Indiana UP, 1986 ISBN 0-253-33958-8
  3. ^ a b Siberian Tatars
  4. ^ Valeev F.T. Siberian Tatars. Kazan, 1993. (in Russian)
  5. ^ Siberian Tatars. Historical reference (in Russian)
  6. ^ Levinson, David (1996). Encyclopedia of World Cultures. G.K. Hall. p. 340.  
  7. ^ a b Tumasheva D.G.. Dialects of the Siberian Tatar language: experience of the comparative research. Kazan, 1977 (in Russian)

External links

  • Group of Siberian Tatars.
  • Information about Kalmaks.
  • Siberian Tatars.
  • Baraba Tatars.
  • Song in Siberian Tatar language

References

  • History of Siberian Tatars
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