Shah of iran

History of Greater Iran
Until the rise of modern nation-states
Pre-modern

The following is a list of kings and queens of Main Dynasties of Greater Iran, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Greater Iran and their rulers. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of Iran please see:

Ancient Empires (c. 2700–550 BC)

For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Kingdom of Aratta[1] (c. 2700BC)
1 In-Su-Kush-Siranna  ? – ? c. 2700 BC c. 2700 BC  ? Contemporary with Enmerkar king of Uruk
Kingdom of Elam[2] (c. 2700–c. 2600 BC)
2 Humbaba  ? – c. 2680 BC c. 2700 BC c. 2680 BC  ? Contemporary with Gilgamesh king of Uruk
3 Humban-Shutur (or Khumbastir)  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
Awan Dynasty[3][4][5] (c. 2600–2550 BC)
4 Unnamed King of Awan  ? – ? c. 2580 BC  ?  ? Contemporary with Ur-Nungal king of Uruk[6]
5 ...Lu King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
6 Kur-Ishshak King of Awan  ? – ?  ? c. 2550 BC  ? 36 years. contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu king of Adab & Ur-Nanshe king of Lagash
Awan Dynasty[5] (c. 2550–2270 BC)
7 Peli King of Awan  ? – ? c. 2500 BC  ?  ?
8 Tata I King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
9 Ukku-Tanhish King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
10 Hishutash King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
11 Shushun-Tarana King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
12 Napi-Ilhush King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
13 Kikku-Siwe-Temti King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
14 Hishep-Ratep I King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
15 Luh-Ishshan King of Awan  ? -c. 2325 BC  ? c. 2325 BC Son of Hishep-Ratep I
16 Hishep-Ratep II King of Awan  ? – ? c. 2325 BC  ? Son of Luh-Ishshan
17 Emahsini[7] King of Awan  ? – 2311 BC c. 2315 BC 2311 BC
18 Helu King of Awan  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
19 Hita King of Awan  ? – ? c. 2270 BC c. 2270 BC  ? contemporary of Naram-Sin king of Akkad
Gutian Dynasty[8] (c. 2256–c. 2120 BC
20 Erridupizir King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2256 BC c. 2251 BC  ?
21 Imta or Nibia King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2250 BC c. 2246 BC  ?
22 Inkishush King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2245 BC c. 2240 BC  ?
23 Zarlagab King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2239 BC c. 2234 BC  ?
24 Shulme King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2233 BC c. 2228 BC  ?
25 Elulmesh or Silulumesh King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2227 BC c. 2222 BC  ?
26 Duga King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2221 BC c. 2216 BC  ?
27 Iluan King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2215 BC c. 2213 BC  ?
28 Inimabakesh King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2212 BC c. 2208 BC  ?
29 Inkishush King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2207 BC c. 2202 BC  ?
30 Yarlagab King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2201 BC c. 2187 BC  ?
31 Ibate King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2186 BC c. 2184 BC  ?
32 Yarlagab or Yarla King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2183 BC c. 2181 BC  ?
33 Kurum King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2180 BC c. 2180 BC  ?
34 Apilkin King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2179 BC c. 2177 BC  ?
35 La-erabum King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2176 BC c. 2175 BC  ?
36 Irarum King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2174 BC c. 2173 BC  ?
37 Ibranum King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2172 BC c. 2172 BC  ?
38 Hablum King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2171 BC c. 2170 BC  ?
39 Puzur-Suen King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2169 BC c. 2163 BC  ?
40 Yarlaganda King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2162 BC c. 2156 BC  ?
41 Si'um or Si'u King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2155 BC c. 2121 BC  ?
42 Tirigan King of Kutian  ? – ? c. 2120 BC c. 2120 BC  ? 40 days
Awan Dynasty,[5] (c. 2100 BC)
43 Kutik-Inshushinak[9] King of Awan  ? – ? c. 2100 BC c. 2100 BC Son of Shinpi-hish-huk contemporary of Ur-Nammu king of Ur. Susa conquered by Ur troops in 2078 and 2016 BC. After him, kings of Simashki took the leadership of Elam.
Simashki Dynasty[10][11] (c. 2070–c. 1975 BC)
44 Gir-Namme I King of Simashki  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
45 Tazitta I King of Simashki  ? – ? c. 2040 BC[7] c. 2037 BC[7]  ?
46 Eparti I King of Simashki  ? – ?  ? c. 2033 BC[7]  ?
47 Gir-Namme II King of Simashki  ? – ? c. 2033 BC  ?  ?
48 Tazitta II King of Simashki  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
49 Lurak-Luhhan King of Simashki  ? – 2022 BC c. 2028 BC 2022 BC  ?
50 Hutran-Temti King of Simashki  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
51 Indattu-Inshushinak I King of Simashki  ? – 2016 BC  ? 2016 BC Son of Hutran-Temti
52 Kindattu King of Simashki  ? – ? Before c. 2006 BC After c. 2005 BC Son of Tan-Ruhuratir Conqueror of Ur
53 Indattu-Inshushinak II King of Simashki  ? – ? c. 1980 BC  ? Son of Pepi[9] Cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin & Bilalama king of Eshnunna
55 Tan-Ruhuratir I King of Simashki  ? – ? c. 1965 BC  ? Son of Indattu-Inshushinnak II Cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
56 Indattu-Inshushinak III King of Simashki  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Tan-Ruhuratir I More than 3 years
Epartid Dynasty[12] (c. 1975–c. 1500 BC)
54 Eparti II King of Simashki, king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah  ? – ? c. 1973 BC  ? Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.[13] cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
57 Shilhaha King of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Eparti II
58 Kuk-Nashur I Sukkalmah  ? – ?  ?  ? son (ruhushak)[14] of Shilhaha
59 Atta-hushu Sukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa, Shepherd of Inshushinak  ? – After c. 1894 BC  ?1928 BC After c. 1894 BC Son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
60 Tetep-Mada Shepherd of the people of Susa  ? – ? After c. 1890 BC  ? Son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
61 Palar-Ishshan Sukkalmah  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
62 Kuk-Sanit  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Palar-Ishshan (?)
63 Kuk-Kirwash Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
64 Tem-Sanit  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Kirwash
65 Kuk-Nahhunte  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Kirwash
66 Kuk-Nashur II Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)
67 Shirukduh Sukkalmah  ? – ? c. 1790 BC  ?  ? Cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria
68 Shimut-Wartash I  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Shirukduh
69 Siwe-Palar-Hupak Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam  ? – ? Before c. 1765 BC After c. 1765 BC Son of Shirukduh
70 Kuduzulush I Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Shirukduh
71 Kutir-Nahhunte I Sukkalmah  ? – ? c. 1710 BC  ? Son of Kuduzulush I
72 Atta-Merra-Halki  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kuduzulush I (?)
73 Tata II Sukkal  ? – ?  ?  ? Brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
74 Lila-Irtash  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kuduzulush I
75 Temti-Agun Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kutir-Nahhunte I
76 Kutir-Shilhaha Sukkalmah, Sukkal  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Temti-Agun
77 Kuk-Nashur III Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa  ? – ? Before c. 1646 BC After c. 1646 BC Son of Kutir-Shilhaha
78 Temti-Raptash  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kutir-Shilhaha
79 Shimut-Wartash II  ? – ?  ?  ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
80 Shirtuh King of Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kuk-Nashur III
81 Kuduzulush II Sukkalmah, King of Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Shimut-Wartash II
82 Tan-Uli Sukkalmah, Sukkal  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
83 Temti-Halki Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Tan-Uli
84 Kuk-Nashur IV[7] Sukkalmah  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Tan-Uli
85 Kutik-Matlat[6]  ? – ? c. 1500 BC  ? Son of Tan-Uli
Kidinuid Dynasty[12] (c. 1500–c. 1370 BC)
86 Kidinu King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? 15th century BC  ?  ?
87 Inshushinak-Sunkir-Nappipir King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
88 Tan-Ruhuratir II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? 15th century BC  ?  ?
89 Shalla King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
94 Temti-Ahar King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1370 BC  ?  ? Cont. Kadashman-Enlil I Kassite king of Babylon
Igehalkid Dynasty[12] (c. 1400–c. 1200 BC)
90 Pahir-Ishshan I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1390 BC  ? Son of Ige-Halki Cont. Kurigalzu I Kassite king of Babylon
91 Kidin-Hutran I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Pahir-Ishshan I[15]
92 Attar-Kittah II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Ige-Halki
93 Humban-Numena I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1370 BC  ? Son of Attar-Kittah II cont. Burna-Buriash II Kassite king of Babylon
95 Untash-Napirisha or Untash-Humban King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1340 BC  ? Son of Humban-Numena I
96 Kidin-Hutran II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Untash-Naprisha[15]
97 Napirisha-Untash or Humban-Untash King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Kidin-Hutran II[15]
98 Pahir-Ishshan II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
99 Unpatar-Napirisha or Unpatar-Humban King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Pahir-Ishshan II
100 Kidin-Hutran III King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1224 BC c. 1217 BC Son of Pahir-Ishshan II cont. Enlil-nadin-shumi & Adad-shuma-iddina Kassite kings of Babylon[13]
Shutrukid Dynasty[12] (c. 1200–c. 970 BC)
101 Hallutush-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1200 BC  ?  ?
102 Shutruk-Nahhunte I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? Before c. 1158 BC After c. 1158 BC Son of Hallutush-Inshushinak
103 Kutir-Nahhunte II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? Before c. 1155 BC After c. 1155 BC Son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
104 Shilhak-Inshushinak I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ? Son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
105 Hutelutush-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? before c. 1110 BC after c. 1110 BC Son of Kutir-Nahhunte II
106 Shilhina-Hamru-Lakamar King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 1110 BC  ? Son of Shilhak-Inshushinak I
107 Humban-Numena II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 11th century BC  ?  ?
108 Shutruk-Nahhunte II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 11th century BC  ? Son of Humban-Numena II
109 Shutur-Nahhunte I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 11th century BC  ? Son of Humban-Numena II
110 Mar-biti-apla-usur[16] "Son" of Elam  ? – ? c. 983 BC c. 978 BC  ?
 ? Akshir-Shimut King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
 ? Akshir-Nahhunte King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
 ? Kara-Indash King of Elam  ? – ?  ?  ?  ?
Neo-Elamite[17] (c. 821–c. 640 BC)
114 Unnamed King of Elam  ? – ? c. 821 BC c. 821 BC  ? cont. Shamshi-Adad V king of Assyria
115 Humban-Tahrah I King of Elam  ? – 743 BC  ? 743 BC  ?
116 Humban-Nikash I King of Elam  ? – 717 BC 743 BC 717 BC Son of Humban-Tahrah I
117 Shutur-Nahhunte II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – 699 BC 717 BC 699 BC Son (Ruhushak) of Humban-Nikash I
118 Hallushu-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ? – c. 693 BC 699 BC c. 693 BC Brother of Shutur-Nahhunte II
119 Kutir-Nahhunte III King of Anshan & Susa  ? – c 692 BC c. 693 BC c. 692 BC Son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
120 Humban-Numena III King of Anshan & Susa  ? – c. 688 BC c 692 BC c. 688 BC Son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
121 Humban-Haltash I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – c. 681 BC c. 688 BC c. 681 BC Son of Humban-Numena III (?)
122 Humban-Haltash II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – c. 675 BC c. 681 BC c. 675 BC Son of Humban-Haltash I
124 Urtak-Inshushinak King of Anshan & Susa  ? – 663 BC c. 675 BC 663 BC Brother of Humban-Haltash II
125 Temti-Humban-Inshushinak I King of Anshan & Susa  ? – c. 653 BC 663 BC c. 653 BC Brother of Urtak-Inshushinak
126 Humban-Nikash II King of Anshan & Susa  ? – 651 BC c. 653 BC 651 BC Son of Urtak-Inshushinak
127 Tammaritu King of Anshan & Susa  ? – after 645/4 BC 652 BC 649 BC Son of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
129 Indabibi king of Anshan & Susa  ? – after July 648 BC 649 BC after July 648 BC  ?
130 Humban-Haltash III King of Anshan & Susa  ? – after 645/4 BC after July 648 BC 645/4 BC Son of Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak He was defeated and then captured by Assyrians.
127 Tammaritu King of Anshan & Susa  ? – after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC Son of Humban-Hapua & Urtak-Inshushinak
131 Humban-Nikash III King of Anshan & Susa  ? – after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC Son of Atta-Merra-Halki
132 Umhuluma King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? 647 BC 647 BC  ?
133 Indattu-Inshushinak IV King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? 647 BC c. 646 BC  ?
134 Humban-Hapua King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? 647 BC 647 BC  ?
135 Pa'e King of Anshan & Susa  ? – after 645/4 BC autumn 646 after 645/4 BC  ?
136 Shutur-Nahhunte III King of Anshan & Susa  ? – ? c. 646 BC  ? Son of Indattu-Inshushinak IV After him, kingdom of Anshan transferred to Achaemenids
Median Empire[18] (674–652 BC)
123 Xšaθrita Phraortes (?) King of Media  ? – 652 BC 674 BC 652 BC Son of Deioces Killed in battle with Assyrians and Scythians. Domination of Scythia 652–625 BC
Kingdom of Scythia (652–625 BC)
128 Madea King of Scythia  ? – 625 BC 652 BC 625 BC Son of Partatua King of Scythia
Median Empire[18] (625–550 BC)
137 Cyaxares Huvaxšaθra King of Media  ? – 585 BC 625 BC 585 BC Son of Xšaθrita
138 Astyages Ishtuvigu King of Media  ? – 585 BC 585 BC 550 BC Son of Cyaxares Deposed and later killed

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)
139 Cyrus the Great The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World 600 BC – 530 BC 559 BC 530 BC Son of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of Astyages King of Anshan from 559 BC. Killed in battle with Massagetes
140 Cambyses Khshayathiya Khshayathiyanam,[19] The Great King  ? – 521 BC 530 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great Died while en route to put down a rebellion.
141 Bardiya Tanyoxarces The Great King, Pharaoh of Egypt  ? – 522 BC 522 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great (possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya) Killed by Persian aristocrats
142 Darius I Arsames (?) The Great King, King of Kings 550 BC – 486 BC 522 BC 486 BC Son of Hystaspes
143 Xerxes I The Great King, King of Kings 519 BC – 465 BC 485 BC 465 BC Son of Darius I Killed
144 Artaxerxes I The Great King, King of Kings, Longimanus  ? – 424 BC 465 BC 424 BC Son of Xerxes I
145 Xerxes II Artaxerxes The Great King, King of Kings  ? – 424 BC 424 BC 424 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Killed by Sogdianus
146  ? Sogdianus The Great King, King of Kings  ? – 423 BC 424 BC 423 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Killed by Darius II
147 Darius II Ochus The Great King, King of Kings  ? – 404 BC 423 BC 404 BC Son of Artaxerxes I
148 Artaxerxes II Arsaces The Great King, King of Kings 436 BC – 358 BC 404 BC 358 BC Son of Darius II
149 Artaxerxes III Ochus The Great King, King of Kings  ? – 338 BC 358 BC 338 BC Son of Artaxerxes II Killed
150 Artaxerxes IV Arses The Great King, King of Kings  ? – 336 BC 338 BC 336 BC Son of Artaxerxes III Killed
151 Darius III Artashata The Great King, King of Kings 380 BC – 330 BC 336 BC 330 BC Son of Artaxerxes IV Killed by Artaxerxes V
152 Artaxerxes V Bessus The Great King, King of Kings  ? – 329 BC 330 BC 329 BC Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II Killed by Alexander I

Macedonian Empire (330–309 BC)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Macedonian Empire (330–312 BC)
153 Alexander the Great 356 – 13 June 323 BC 330 BC 323 BC Son of Philip II of Macedonia King of Macedonia from 336 BC as Alexander III
154 Philip III Arrhidaeus c. 359 – 317 BC June 323 BC 317 BC Son of Philip II of Macedonia Killed by Olympias
155 Alexander IV Aegus Sept. 323 – 309 BC Sept. 323 BC 309 BC Son of Alexander I King of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC, Killed by Cassander son of Antipater
Perdiccas  ? – 321 BC June 323 BC 321 BC Regent, Prince of Orestis
Antipater  ?398–319 BC 321 BC 319 BC Son of Iollas Regent
Polyperchon 394–303 BC 319 BC 316 BC son of Simmias Regent
157 Antigonus I Monophthalmus 382–301 BC 316 BC 312 BC Son of Philip of Elymiotis King of Anatolia, Syria and Macedonia as Antigonus I until 301 BC. Killed by Seleucus I

Seleucid Empire (311-129 BC)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Macedonian Empire (330–312 BC)
158 Seleucus I Nicator c. 358–281 BC 311 BC 281 BC Son of Antiochus son of Seleucus Assumed title of "King" from 306 BC. Killed by Ptolemy Ceraunus
159 Antiochus I Soter  ? – 261 BC 281 BC 261 BC Son of Seleucus I Co-ruler from 291
160 Antiochus II Theos 286–246 BC 261 BC 246 BC Son of Antiochus I
162 Seleucus II Callinicus  ? – 225 BC 246 BC 225 BC Son of Antiochus II
163 Seleucus III Alexander Ceraunus c. 243–223 BC 225 BC 223 BC Son of Seleucus II
164 Antiochus III Megas c. 241–187 BC 223 BC 187 BC Son of Seleucus II
166 Seleucus IV Philopator  ? – 175 BC 187 BC 175 BC Son of Antiochus III
168 Antiochus IV Epiphanes c. 215–163 BC 175 BC 163 BC Son of Antiochus III Killed in Elymais
171 Antiochus V Eupator c. 172–161 BC 163 BC 161 BC Son of Antiochus IV
172 Demetrius I Soter 185–150 BC 161 BC 150 BC Son of Seleucus IV
173 Alexander III Balas  ? – 146 BC 150 BC 146 BC Son of Antiochus IV ?
174 Demetrius II Nicator  ? – 139 BC 146 BC 139 BC Son of Demetrius I Defeated and captured by Parthians. He married to Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
175 Antiochus VI Dionysus 148-138 BC 145 BC 142 BC Son of Alexander III. Jointly with Demetrius II.
176 Antiochus VII Euergetes  ? – 129 BC 139 BC 129 BC Son of Demetrius I Killed in battle with Phraates II

Parthian Empire (247 BC–AD 228)

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BC. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

  • List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
161 Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces King, Karen, Autocrator  ? – 211 BC 247 BC 211 BC A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II
165 Arsaces II Arsaces  ? – 185 BC 211 BC 185 BC[20] Son of Arsaces I
167 Arsaces III Phriapatius  ? – 170 BC 185 BC 170 BC[20] Grandson of Tiridates I
169 Arsaces IV Phraates I  ? – 167 BC 170 BC 167 BC[21] Son of Phriapatius
170 Arsaces V Mithridates I The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene  ? – 132 BC 167 BC[21] 132 BC[22] Son of Phriapatius
176 Arsaces VI Phraates II The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros  ? – 127 BC 132 BC 127 BC[22] Son of Mithridates I Killed in battle with Scythians
177 Arsaces VII Artabanus I King  ? – 126 BC 127 BC 126 BC[22] Son of Phriapatius Killed in battle with Tocharians
178 Arsaces VIII Vologases (I)[22] The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes  ? – 122 BC 126 BC 122 BC[22] Son of Phriapatius He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
179 Arsaces IX Artabanus (II)[22] The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 121 BC 122 BC 121 BC Son of Artabanus I Killed in battle with Medians
180 Arsaces X Mithridates II The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter  ? – 91 BC 121 BC[23] 91 BC Son of Artabanus I
181 Arsaces XI Gotarzes I The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator  ? – 87 BC 91 BC 87 BC Son of Mithridates II
182 Arsaces XII Artabanus (III)[21] The Great King, Theopator, Nicator  ? – 77? BC 91 BC 77? BC Son of Vologases (I)
183 Arsaces XIII Mithridates (III)[22] The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes  ? – 67 BC 88 BC 67 BC Son of Mithridates II
184 Arsaces XIV Orodes I The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 75 BC 80 BC 75 BC Son of Mithridates II
185 Arsaces XV Sanatruces I The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene 157 BC – 70 BC 77 BC 70 BC Son of Vologases (I)[21]
186 Arsaces XVI[21]  ? The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes  ? – 66 BC 77 BC 66 BC  ?
187 Arsaces XVII Phraates III The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 57 BC 70 BC 57 BC Son of Sanatruces I Killed by Orodes II
188 Arsaces XVIII[21]  ? The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 63 BC 66 BC 63 BC Son of Arsaces XVI
189 Arsaces XIX Mithridates III (or IV) The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene  ? – 54 BC 65 BC[21] 54 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Orodes II
190 Arsaces XX Orodes II King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes  ? – 38 BC 57 BC 38 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Phraates IV
191 Arsaces XXI Pacorus I King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 38 BC 50 BC 38 BC Son of Orodes II Killed in battle with Romans
192 Arsaces XXII Phraates IV King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 2 BC 38 2 BC Son of Orodes II Killed by Musa
193 Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos  ? – after 23 BC 30 BC 25 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Deposed and went to Rome
194 Arsaces XXIV Mithridates (V)[24]  ?  ? – ? BC 12 BC 9 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Musa Musa Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania  ?- 4? AD 2 BC 4 AD Queen of Phraates IV
195 Arsaces XXV Phraates V King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ?- 4 AD 2 BC 4 AD Son of Phraates IV & Musa Deposed and went to Rome
196 Arsaces XXVI Orodes III King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 6 4 6 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Killed by Parthian aristocrats
197 Arsaces XXVII Vonones I The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus  ? – 19 8 12 Son of Phraates IV Deposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.
198 Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus III King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 40 10 40 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
199 Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III  ?  ? – ? 35 36 Probably a descendant of Tiridates II Deposed and went to Rome
200 Arsaces XXX Cinnamus  ?  ? – ? 37 37 Son of Artabanus III Abdicated
201 Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II 80px King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 11–51 40 – 51 Son of Artabanus III
202 Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 46 40 46 Son of Artabanus III Killed by Gotarzes II
203 Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 51 c. 45 51
204 Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates (VI)[25]  ?  ? – ? 49 50 Son of Vonones II Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
205 Arsaces XXXV Vologases I (or II) King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord  ? – 77 51 77 Son of Vonones II
206 Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – ? 55 58 Son of Vologases I (or II) Deposed
207 Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II (or III) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – ? 77 89/90 Probably son of Vologases I
208 Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 115 77 115 Son of Vonones II
209 Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – ? 80 81 Probably son of Artabanus III
210 Arsaces XL Osroes I King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 130 89/90 130 Probably son of Vologases II (or III)
211 Arsaces XLI Vologases III (or IV) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 148 105 148  ?
212 Arsaces XLII Mithridates IV (or VII) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – c. 145 115 c. 145 Brother of Osroes I Killed in battle with Romans
213 Arsaces XLIII Parthamaspates King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – after 123 116 117 Son of Osroes I Deposed and went to Rome
214 Arsaces XLIV[26] Sanatruces II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – c. 145 c. 145 c. 145 son of Mithridates IV (or VII) Killed in battle with Romans
215 Arsaces XLV Vologases IV (or V) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 191 148 191 Son of Mithridates IV (or VII)
216 Arsaces XLVI Vologases V (or VI) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 208 191 208 Son of Vologases IV (or V)
217 Arsaces XLVII Osroes II King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – ? c. 190 c. 195 Probably son of Vologases IV (or V)
218 Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI (or VII) King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 181–228 208 228 Son of Vologases V (or VI) Killed by Ardashir I
219 Arsaces XLIX Artabanus V King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – 226 213 226 Son of Vologases V (or VI) Killed by Ardashir I
220 Arsaces L Tiridates IV[27] King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene  ? – ? 217 222 Son of Vologases IV (or V) He was also king of Armenia

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
221 Ardashir I Shahanshah[28]  ? – sept. 241 28 April 224 sept. 241 Son of Babak, who was son of Sasan
222 Shapur I Shahanshah 215 – April 273 12 April 240 April 273 Son of Ardashir I
223 Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir Shahanshah, Vozorg Armananshah[29]  ? – April 274 April 273 April 274 Son of Shapur I
224 Bahram I Shahanshah, Gilanshah  ? – July 277 April 274 July 277 Son of Shapur I
225 Bahram II Shahanshah  ? – 294 July 277 293 Son of Bahram I
226 Bahram III Shahanshah, Sakanshah  ? – 293 293 293 Son of Bahram II Deposed
227 Narseh I Shahanshah, Vozorg Armananshah  ? – 302 293 302 Son of Shapur I
228 Hormizd II Shahanshah  ? – feb. 310 302 feb. 310 Son of Narseh I Killed in battle with Arabs
229 Adhur Narseh Shahanshah  ? – March 310 Feb. 310 March 310 Son of Hormizd II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
230 Shapur II Shahanshah, Huyah Sonba[30] March 310 – 379 March 310 379 Son of Hormizd II
231 Ardashir II Shahanshah  ? – 383 379 383 Son of Shapur II
232 Shapur III Shahanshah  ? – Dec. 388 383 Dec. 388 Son of Shapur II
233 Bahram IV Shahanshah, Kermanshah  ? – 399 Dec. 388 399 Son of Shapur II
234 Yazdegerd I Shahanshah 363 – 21 January 421 399 21 January 421 Son of Shapur III Killed by Iranian aristocrats
237 Yazdegerd II Shahanshah  ? – 15 December 456 20 June 439 15 December 456 Son of Bahram V
238 Hormizd III Shahanshah 399–459 457 459 Son of Yazdegerd II Killed by Peroz I
239 Peroz I Shahanshah  ? – Jan. 484 457 Jan. 484 Son of Yazdegerd II Killed in battle with Hephthalites
240 Balash Shahanshah  ? – 488 Feb. 484 488 Son of Yazdegerd II
241 Kavadh I 80px Shahanshah 449–531 488 496 Son of Peroz I Deposed
242 Djamasp Shahanshah  ? – 502 496 498 Son of Peroz I Deposed
241 Kavadh I 80px Shahanshah 449 – 13 September 531 498 13 September 531 Son of Peroz I
243 Khosrau I Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just 500 – 31 January 579 13 September 531 31 January 579 Son of Kavadh I
244 Hormizd IV Shahanshah, Torkzad 528–590 31 January 579 5 September 590 Son of Khosrau I Killed by Vistahm
245 Khosrau II Shahanshah, Aparviz 550–628 Sept. 590 Sept. 590 Son of Hormizd IV Deposed and went to Rome
246 Bahram VI Mehrbandak Shahanshah, Chubineh  ? – 592 Sept. 590 Jan. 591 Son of Bahram-Goshnasp from House of Mihran Killed by Turks
245 Khosrau II Shahanshah, Aparviz 550–628 Jan. 591 25 February 628 Son of Hormizd IV Killed by Kavadh II
247 Vistahm Shahanshah, Peroz  ? – 595 591 595 CE Son of Shapur from House of Espandyad. He was uncle of Khosrau II & husband of Gorduyah sister of Bahram VI Killed by his wife Gorduyah sister of Bahram VI
248 Hormizd V Shahanshah  ? – ?  ?593  ?593 Probably son of Vistahm & Gorduyah sister of Bahram VI
249 Kavadh II Shiruyah Shahanshah  ? – 15 September 628 25 February 628 15 September 628 Son of Khosrau II
250 Ardashir III Shahanshah 598 – 27 April 630 15 September 628 27 April 630 Son of Kavadh II Killed by Farrokhan
251 Farrokhan Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz, Rumi-zan  ? – 9 June 630 27 April 630 9 June 630 Son of Ardashir from House of Varaz. He was husband of Boran daughter of Khosrau II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
252 Khosrau III Shahanshah  ? – ? May 630 after July 635 Son of Kavadh son of Hormizd IV
253 Boran Shahbano[31] 590 – Oct. 631 June 630 Oct. 631 Daughter of Khosrau II & Wife of Farrokhan
254 Peroz II Goshnasp-Bandeh Shahanshah  ? – Dec. 631 Oct. 631 Dec. 631 Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I. Probably he was also husband of Azarmidokht Killed by Iranian aristocrats
255 Khosrau IV Shahanshah  ? – Dec. 631 Dec. 631 Dec. 631 Brother of Peroz II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
256 Azarmidokht Shahbano  ? – April 632 Dec. 631 April 632 Daughter of Khosrau II & probably wife of Peroz II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
257 Hormizd VI Shahanshah  ? – ? April 632 after July 633 Son of Kavadh II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
258 Khosrau V Farrokhzad Shahanshah  ? – Oct. 632 April 632 Oct. 632 Son of Khosrau II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
259 Yazdegerd III Shahanshah 624 – 651 Oct. 632 651 Son of Shahryar Killed

Rashidun Caliphate (641–692)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
260 Umar I Abu Hafş, Al-Farouq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 590–644 641 644 Son of Khattab. He was also the father of Hafşa – wife of Muhammad Second Caliph in Medina from 633 AD. Killed
261 Uthman Abu Amr, Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 579–656 644 656 Son of Affan of Umayyad clan of Quraish Killed
263 Ali Abul-Hasan, Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam 598–661 656 661 Son of Abu Talib. He was also son-in-law of Muhammad Killed
264 Hasan Abu Mohammad, Al-Mojtaba, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam 625–670 661 661 Son of Ali Abdicated
268 Abd Allah Caliph 624–692 684 692 Son of Zubayr son of Safiah – aunt of Muhammad killed by Hajjaj ibn Yusif

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
265 Muawiyah I Abu Abdollah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 661 680 Son of Abu Sofyan cousin of Muhammad
266 Yazid I Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 680 683 Son of Muawiyah I
267 Muawiya II Abu Abd or-Rahman, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 683 684 Son of Yazid I Abdicated (?)
269 Marwan I Abu Abd ol-Malik, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 684 685 Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I Killed by his wife
270 Abd ol-Malik Ab ol-Walid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 685 705 Son of Marwan I
271 Walid I Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 705 715 Son of Abd ol-Malik
272 Suleiman Ab Ayyub, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 715 717 Son of Abd ol-Malik
273 Umar II Abu Hafş, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 717 720 Son of Abd ol-Aziz son of Marwan I
274 Yazid II Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 720 724 Son of Abd ol-Malik
275 Hisham Ab ol-Walid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 724 743 Son of Abd ol-Malik
276 Walid II Abul-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 743 744 Son of Yazid II
277 Yazid III Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 744 Son of Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III Killed
278 Ebrahim Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 744 Son of Walid I Killed
279 Marwan II Abu Abd ol-Malik, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 750 Son of Mohammad son of Marwan I Ruled from Harran in the Jazira. Killed by Saffah

Abbasid Caliphate (750–946)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
280 Saffah Abdollah Abul-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 750 754 Son of Mohammad son of Ali son of Abdollah, a cousin of Muhammad
281 Mansur Abdollah Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 754 775 Brother of Saffah
282 Mahdi Mohammd Abu Abdellah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 775 785 Son of Mansur
283 Hadi Musa Abu Mohammd, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 785 786 Son of Mahdi
284 Rashid Harun Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 786 809 son of Mahdi
285 Amin Mohammad Abu Abdollah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 809 813 Son of Rashid Killed by Ma'mun
286 Ma'mun Abdollah Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 813 833 Son of Rashid
287 Mo'tasem Mohammad Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 833 842 son of Rashid
288 Wathiq Harun Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 842 847 Son of Mo'tasem
289 Motevakkil Ja'far Ab ol-Fazl, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 847 861 Son of Mo'tasem Killed by Montaser
290 Montaser Mohammad Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 861 862 Son of Motevakkil
291 Mosta'in Ahmad Abul-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 862 866 Son of Mohammad son of Mo'tasem Deposed and later killed
292 Mo'taz Zobayr Abu Abdellah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 866 869 Son of Motevakkil Deposed and later killed
293 Mohtadi Mohammad Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 869 870 Son of Wathiq
294 Mo'tamed Ahmad Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 870 892 Son of Motevakkil
295 Mo'tazed Ahmad Abul-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 892 902 Son of Talhat el-Movaffaq son of Motevakkil
296 Moktafi Ali Abu Mohammad, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 902 908 son of Mo'tazed
297 Moqtader Ja'far Abul-Fazl, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 908 932 Son of Mo'tazed Killed
298 Qaher Mohammad Abu Mansur, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 932 934 Son of Mo'tazed Deposed and blinded
300 Razi Mohammad Abul-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 934 940 Son of Moqtader
302 Mottaqi Ebrahim Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 940 944 Son of Moqtader Deposed and blinded
304 Mostakfi Abdollah Abul-Qasem, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 944 946 Son of Moktafi Deposed and blinded by Mo'ez o-dowleh

Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Saffarid Dynasty (861–1003)
304 Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar Emir 840 - 879 861 879 Son of Laith Died of sickness
305 Amr ibn al-Layth Emir  ? – 902 879 901 Son of Laith Captured by the Samanids, later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad
306 Tahir ibn Muhammad ibn Amr Emir  ? – ? 901 908 Son of Muhammad ibn Amr Imprisoned in Baghdad
307 Al-Layth Emir  ? – 928 909 910 Son of Ali ibn al-Layth Dies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad in 928
308 Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Layth Emir  ? – ? 910 911 Son of Ali ibn al-Layth Imprisoned in Baghdad
309 Amr ibn Ya'qub Emir 902 – ? 912 913 Son of Ya'qub Overthrown by the Samanids
310 Ahmad ibn Muhammad Emir June 21, 906 – March 31, 963 923 963 Son of Muhammad Saffari Killed by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman
311 Khalaf ibn Ahmad Emir November 937 – March 1009 963 1002 Son of Ahmad ibn Muhammad Overthrown by the Ghaznavids in 1002, dies as exile in 1009

Buyid Empire (933–1062)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Diylamids of Fars (933–1062)
299 Emad od-Dowleh Ali Abolhasan, Emir  ?892 – 949 933 949 son of Buyeh
305 Azad od-Dowleh Panah Khosrow Abushoja', Emir 937–982 949 982 son of Rokn od-Dowleh
309 Sharaf od-Dowleh Shirdel Abolfavares, Emir 962–989 982 989 son of Azad od-Dowleh
313 Shams od-Dowleh Abuali, Emir  ? – 989 989 989 son of Sharaf od-Dowleh
310 Samsam od-Dowleh Marzban Abukalijar, Emir 964–998 989 998 son of Azad od-Dowleh
316 Nur od-Dowleh Salar Emir  ? – 1000? 998 999 son of Izz od-Dowleh
312 Baha' od-Dowleh Firuz Abunasr, Emir 970–1012 999 1012 son of Azad od-Dowleh
317 Soltan od-Dowleh Abushoja', Emir 992–1024 1012 1024 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
320 Qavam od-Dowleh Shirdel Abolfavares, Emir 999–1028 1024 1026 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
322 Emad od-Din Marzban Abukalijar, Emir  ?1011 – 1048 1026 1048 son of Soltan od-Dowleh
325 Fuladsotun Abumansur, Emir  ? – ? 1048 1048 son of Emad od-Din
326 Malek or-Rahim Khosrow Firuz Abunasr, Emir  ? – 1058 1048 1050 son of Emad od-Din
325 Fuladsotun Abumansur, Emir  ? – ? 1050 1051 son of Emad od-Din
327 Khosrow Shah Abusa'id, Emir  ? – ? 1051 1053 son of Emad od-Din
325 Fuladsotun Abumansur, Emir  ? – ? 1053 1062 son of Emad od-Din
Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan (935–1038)
301 Rokn od-Dowleh Hasan Abuali, Emir 898–976 935 976 son of Buyeh
307 Mo'ayyed od-Dowleh Buyeh Abumansur, Emir 941–983 976 983 son of Rokn od-Dowleh
308 Fakhr od-Dowleh Ali Abolhasan, Emir 952–997 976 997 son of Rokn od-Dowleh From 976 to 979 only in Rey. From 979 to 983 in exile.
314 Majd od-Dowleh Rostam Abutaleb, Emir 993–1029 997 1029 son of Fakhr od-Dowleh Only in Rey
315 Shams od-Dowleh Shah Khosrow Abutaher, Emir  ? – 1021 997 1021 son of Fakhr od-Dowleh Only in Isfahan and Hamedan
319 Sama' od-Dowleh Ali Abolhasan, Emir  ? – 1023 1021 1023 son of Shams od-Dowleh Only in Hamedan
324 Panah Khosrow Abukalijar, Emir  ? – ? c. 1036 c. 1038 son of Majd od-Dowleh Only in Rey
Diylamids of Iraq and Khuzistan (945–1055)
303 Mo'ez od-Dowleh Ahmad Abolhosein, Emir 915–966 945 966 son of Buyeh
306 Izz od-Dowleh Bakhtiar Abumansur, Emir 943–977 966 977 son of Mo'ez od-Dowleh
305 Azad od-Dowleh Panah Khosrow Abushoja', Emir 937–982 977 982 son of Rokn od-Dowleh
310 Samsam od-Dowleh Marzban Abukalijar, Emir 964–998 982 986 son of Azad od-Dowleh
311 Sharaf od-Dowleh Shirdel Abolfavares, Emir 962–989 986 989 son of Azad od-Dowleh
312 Baha' od-Dowleh Firuz Abunasr, Emir 970–1012 989 1012 son of Azad od-Dowleh
317 Soltan od-Dowleh Abushoja', Emir 992–1024 1012 1021 son of Baha od-Dowleh
318 Mosharraf od-Dowleh Hasan Abuali, Emir 1002–1025 1021 1025 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
321 Jalal od-Dowleh Shirdel (or Firuz Khosrow) Abutaher, Emir 994–1043 1025 1025 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
322 Emad od-Din Marzban Abukalijar, Emir  ?1011 – 1048 1025 1027 son of Soltan od-Dowleh
321 Jalal od-Dowleh Shirdel (or Firuz Khosrow) Abutaher, Emir 994–1043 1027 1043 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
322 Emad od-Din Marzban Abukalijar, Emir  ?1011 – 1048 1043 1048 son of Soltan od-Dowleh
326 Malek or-Rahim Khosrow Firuz Abunasr, Emir  ? – 1058 1048 1055 son of Emad od-Din

Great Seljuq Empire (1029–1194)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
House of Seljuq (1029–1194)
323 Toğrül I Mohammad Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Beg, Sultan 995–1063 1029 1063 son of Mikayil son of Seljuq
328 Alp Arslan Mohammad Azad od-Dowleh, Abushoja', Sultan 1039–1072 1063 1072 son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I Killed by a captured soldier
329 Malik Shah I Hasan Jalal od-Dowleh, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1055–1092 1072 1092 son of Alp Arslan Killed by Assassins
330 Mahmud I Nasir od-Din, abolqasem, Sultan 1086–1094 1092 1094 son of Malik Shah I
331 Barkiyaruq Mohammad Rukn od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan 1080–1105 1094 1105 son of Malik Shah I
333 Malik Shah II Mu'izz od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1101 – ? 1105 1105 son of Barkiyaruq Deposed & blinded by Mehmed I
334 Mehmed I Tapar Ghiyath od-Din, Abushoja', Sultan 1082–1118 1105 1118 son of Malik Shah I
332 Sanjar Ahmad Mu'izz od-Din, Abolhareth, Sultan 1087–1157 1097 1157 son of Malik Shah I
335 Mahmud II Moghith od-Din, Sultan 1104–1131 1118 1131 son of Mehmed I
336 Dawud Moghith od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan  ? – 1132 1131 1132 son of Mahmud II
337 Toğrül II Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Sultan 1109–1134 1132 1134 son of Mehmed I
338 Mas'ud Ghiath od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1109–1152 1134 1152 son of Mehmed I
339 Malik Shah III Moghith od-Din, Sultan 1128–1160 1152 1153 son of Mahmud II
340 Mohammad II Ghith od-Din, Abushoja', Sultan 1128–1160 1153 1160 son of Mahmud II
343 Süleyman Shah Mu'izz od-Din, Abolhareth, Sultan 1118–1162 1160 1161 son of Mehmed I Deposed
344 Arsalan Rukn od-Din, Sultan 1134–1176 1161 1176 son of Toğrül II
347 Toğrül III Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Sultan  ? – 1194 1176 1194 son of Arsalan Killed

Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1231)

An empire built from Khwarezm, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Khwarezmid Empire (1153–1231)
341 Atsiz Ala' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan  ? – 1156 1153 1156 son of Muhammad I of Khwarazm Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127
342 Il-Arslan Taj od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan  ? – 1171 1156 1172 son of Atsiz
345 Soltanshah Mahmud Jalal od-Din, Abolqasem, Sultan  ? – 1172 1172 1193 son of Il-Arslan
346 Tekish Ala' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan  ? – 1199 1172 1200 son of Il-Arslan
348 Mohammad Ala' od-Din, Qotb od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan  ? – 1221 1200 1221 son of Tekish
349 Mingburnu Jalal od-Din, Sultan  ? – 1231 1220 1231 son of Mohammad II Killed

Mongol Empire (1230–1357)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Great Khans (1221–1256)
350 Genghis Temuchin Khan, Qa'an 1162–1227 1221 1227 son of Yesugei Baghatur Ruling in Mongolia from 1206
Tolui Khan 1192–1232 25 August 1227 13 September 1229 son of Genghis Regent
351 Ögedei Khan, Qa'an c. 1186 – 11 December 1241 13 September 1229 11 December 1241 son of Genghis
Töregene Khatun  ? – ? 1242 1246 Wife of Ögedei Regent
352 Güyük 80px Khan, Qa'an c. 1206–1248 1246 1248 son of Ögedei and Töregene
Oghul Qaimish Khatun  ? – ? 1248 1251 Wife of Güyük Regent
353 Möngke 80px Khan, Qa'an 10 January 1209 – 11 August 1259 1 July 1251 11 August 1259 son of Tolui
Ilkhanate (1256–1357)
354 Hulagu Khan, Ilkhan c. 1217 – 8 February 1265 1256 8 February 1265 son of Tolui
355 Abaqa Khan, Ilkhan 1234–1282 1265 1 April 1282 son of Hulagu
356 Tekuder Nicholas, Ahmad Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan  ? – 1284 1282 1284 son of Hulagu Killed
357 Arghun Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan c. 1258 – 7 March 1291 1284 7 March 1291 son of Abaqa
358 Gaykhatu Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan  ? – 1295 1291 1295 son of Abaqa Killed
359 Baydu Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan  ? – 1295 1295 1295 son of Toghay son of Hulagu Killed
360 Ghazan Mahmud Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan 1271–1304 1295 1304 son of Arghun
361 Öljaitü Mohammad Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Khodabandeh 1280 – 16 December 1316 1304 16 December 1316 son of Arghun
362 Abu Sa'id Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Ala' od-Din, Bahador 2 June 1305 – 1 December 1335 1316 1 December 1335 son of Öljaitü
363 Arpa Mahmud Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Kauen, Mo'ezz od-Din  ? – 1336 1335 10 April 1336 son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malektemur son of Eriqbuka son of Tolui Killed
364 Musa Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Naser od-Din  ? – 1337 12 April 1336 1337 son of Ali son of Baydu
365 Mohammad Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Mozaffar od-Din  ? – 1338 1336 1338 son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu
366 Sati beg Khatun c.1300 – after 1345 1338 1339 daughter of Öljaitü
367 Jahan Temur Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Izz od-Din  ? – ? 1339 1340 son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu
368 Soleiman Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan  ? – ? May 1339 1345 Husband of Sati beg. Also he was son of Yusef Shah son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu
369 Togha Temür Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan  ? – 1353 1335 1353 son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur
370 Anushirwan Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Adel  ? – ? 1344 1357  ?

Rival Dynasties (1332–1501)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Sarbadars (1332–1386)

  1. Abd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah (1332–1338)
  2. Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah (1338–1343)
  3. Muhammad Ay Temur (1343–1346)
  4. Kaba Isfendiyar (1346–1347)
  5. Lutf Allah (1347–1348 d.1361)
  6. Khwaja Tadj ad-Din Ali (1348–1353)
  7. Yahya ibn Karawi (1353–1358)
  8. Zahir ad-Din (1358–1359)
  9. Haidar al-Qassab (1359–1360)
  10. Lutf Allah (restored) (1360–1361)
  11. Hasan al-Damghani (1361–1364)
  12. Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud (1364–1376 d.1386)
  13. Rukn ad-Din (1376–1379)
  14. Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud (restored) (1379–1386)

Chupanids (1335–1357)

  1. Chupan
  2. Bagdad Katun
  3. Hasan Kucek
  4. Malek Ashraf

Jalayirids (1335–1432)

  1. Hasan Buzurg (1336–1356)
  2. Shaikh Uvais I (1356–1374)
  3. Hasan (1374)
  4. Husain I (1374–1382)
  5. Bayazid (1382–1383)
  6. Ahmad (1383–1410)
  7. Shah Walad (1410–1411)
  8. Mahmud (1411–1415)
  9. Uwais II (1415–1421)
  10. Mohammed (1421–1422)
  11. Mahmud II (1422–1424)
  12. Husain II (1424–1432)

Injuids (1335–1357)

  1. Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah (1304–1325)
  2. Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau (1336–1338/9)
  3. Amir Jalal al-Din Mas'ud Shah (in opposition to Kai-Khusrau) (c. 1338–c. 1342)
  4. Shams al-Din Muhammad (in opposition to Mas'ud Shah) (1339)
  5. Shaikh Abu Ishaq (c. 1343–1357)

Muzaffarids (1314–1393)

  1. Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  2. Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  3. Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  4. Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  5. Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387
  6. Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  7. Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  8. Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  9. Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)

  1. Qara Muhammad Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja, 1378/9 to c.1388
  2. Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad, c.1388 to 1399/1400 and 1405/6 to 1420/1
  3. Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf, 1420/1 to 1436
  4. Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf, 1436 to 10 November 1467
  5. Hasan ’Ali ibn Jahan Shah, November 1467 to 1468

Ak Koyunlu (1378–1508)

  1. Kara Yülük Osman, 1378/9 to 1435/6
  2. Hamza, 1435/6 to 1444/5
  3. Nur al-Din ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1435/6 to 1438
  4. M‘uizz al-Din Jihangir ibn ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1444/5 to 1453/4
  5. Uzun Hasan ibn ‘Ali, 1453/4 to 1478/9
  6. Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan, 1478/9 to 1479/80
  7. Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan, 1479/80 to 1490/1
  8. Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub, 1490/1 to 1491/2
  9. Rustam ibn Maqsud, 1491/2 to 1496/7
  10. Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad, 1496/7 to 1497/8
  11. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1497/8 to 1499/1500
  12. Alwand ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  13. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  14. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1500/01 to 1501/2
  15. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1501/2 to 1508 (second term)

Timurid Empire (1370–1507)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Reign began Reign ended Family Relations Note
Timurid Empire (1370–1449)
1 Timur Tarmashirin Khan Barlas Emir, Beg, Khan, Mirza, Gurkani 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405 1370 18 February 1405 Son of Muhammad Taraghai
2 Pir Muhammad Pir Muhammad Khan bin Jahangir Emir, Khan c. 1374 – 22 February 1407 18 February 1405 22 February 1407 Grandson of Timur
3 Khalil Sultan Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shah Emir, Sultan, Shah c. 1384 – 4 November 1411 18 February 1405 13 May 1409 Grandson of Timur
4 Shahrukh Mirza Shahrukh Mirza Mirza 30 August 1377 – 12 March 1447 18 February 1405 12 March 1447 Son of Timur
5 Ulugh Beg Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay 80px Mirza, Sultan 22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449 12 March 1447 27 October 1449 Son of Shahrukh Mirza
Division of the Timurid Empire (1449–1507)

Rulers in Transoxiana:

  1. Abd al-Latif ibn Muhammad Taraghay Ulughbek, son of Ulugh Beg, 1449–1450
  2. 'Abdullah Mirza, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1450–1451
  3. Abu Sa'id ibn Muhammad, grandson of Miran Shah, 1451–1469, conquered Khurasan in 1459

Rulers in Khurasan:

  1. Babur Ibn-Baysunkur, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1449–1457
  2. Shah Mahmud, son of Babur, 1457
  3. Ibrahim, 1457
  4. Jahan Shah, leader of the Black Sheep Turcomans, 1457–1458

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

  1. Sultan Ahmad, son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  2. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  3. Masud, 1495
  4. Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  5. Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500

Conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

  1. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1469
  2. Husayn Bayqarah, 1469–1506
  3. Badi' al-Zaman, son of Husayn, 1506–1507, fled to the court of Ismail I

Conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids


Safavid dynasty (1501–1786)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
1 Ismail I Shah, Sultan 1487–1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524 son of Sultan Heidar
2 Tahmasp I Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin 1514–1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576 son of Ismail I
3 Ismail II Shah 1537–1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577 son of Tahmasp I Poisoned (?)
4 Mohammad I Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan 1532–1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587 son of Tahmasp I Deposed
5 Abbas I Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571–1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629 son of Mohammad I
6 Safi Sam Mirza Shah, Mirza 1611–1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642 son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza son of Abbas I
7 Abbas II Shah 1632–1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666 son of Safi
8 Suleiman I Safi Mirza Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645–1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694 son of Abbas II
9 Sultan Husayn Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668–1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1722 son of Suleiman I Deposed & then killed by Mahmud Hotaki
11 Tahmasp II Shah 1704–1740 11 September 1722 16 April 1732 son of Sultan Husayn Deposed & then killed by Nader
13 Ahmad Shah, Sultan 1687–1728 28 September 1726 30 March 1728 son of Mirza Abolqasem son of Shahrbanu Beigom daughter of Suleiman I Killed by Ashraf
14 Abbas III Shah 1730–1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736 son of Tahmasp II Under control of Nader. Deposed & then killed by Nader
16 Sam Shah  ?–1743 1743 1743 son of Sultan Husayn I (?) Usurper. Killed by Nader
20 Ismail III Mirza Abutorab Shah  ?–1772 1749 1749 son of Maryam Beigom (or Khan Agha Beigom) daughter of Sultan Husayn I Under control of Karim Khan Zand. Deposed
21 Suleiman II Seyyed Mohammad Shah 1723 or 1725–? 1749 1750 son of Shahrbanu Beigom daughter of Suleiman I Deposed & blinded by Shahrokh
20 Ismail III Mirza Abutorab Shah  ?–1772 1752 1756 son of Maryam Beigom (or Khan Agha Beigom) daughter of Sultan Husayn I Under control of Karim Khan Zand. Deposed
23 Sultan Husayn II Shah  ?–1753 1753 1753 son of Sultan Husayn I (?) Usurper. Killed
30 Mohammad II Abolfat'h Sultan Muhammd Mirza Shah  ?–? 1786 1786 son of Sultan Husayn Mirza son of Tahmasp II Under control of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Afsharid dynasty [32] (1736–1796)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
15 Nader Shah Nadhar Qoli Khan Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698–1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747 son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed
17 Adil Shah Ali Qoli Beig Shah 1719/20–1749 19 June 1747 29 July 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim
18 Ebrahim Afshar Mohammd Ali Beig Shah 1724–1749 29 July 1748 3 September 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar
19 Shahrukh Afshar Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750) & finally killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Zand dynasty[33] (1751–1794)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
22 Karim Khan Mohammad Karim Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705–1779 1751 6 March 1779 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
24 Mohammad Ali Khan Khan 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 son of Karim
25 Abol Fath Khan Khan 1755–1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Karim
26 Zaki Khan Khan  ?–22 August 1779 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha
27 Sadiq Khan Zand Mohammad Sadeq Khan  ?–1782 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
28 Ali Murad Khan Khan 1720–1785 14 March 1781 11 February 1785 son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh
29 Jafar Khan Khan  ?–1789 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 son of Sadeq
31 Sayed Murad Khan Khan  ?–1789 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh
32 Lotf Ali Khan Khan 1769–1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794 son of Ja'far Deposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Qajar dynasty[34] (1794–1925)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
33 Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan Khan, Shah, Khaqan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797 Son of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar Killed
34 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Baba Khan Shah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad
35 Mohammad Shah Qajar Shah, Khaqan 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848 son of Abbas Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat'h Ali
Mahd-e Olia Mahd-e Olia 1814–1888 5 September 1848 5 October 1848 wife of Mohammad Regent
36 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Shah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam 1831–1896 5 October 1848 1 May 1896 son of Mohammad and Mahd-e Olia Killed
37 Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar Shah, Khaqan 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907 son of Naser ed-Din
38 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Shah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909 son of Mozaffar ed-Din Deposed
39 Ahmad Shah Qajar Shah 1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925 son of Mohammd Ali Deposed

Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
40 Reza Shah Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Sardar Sepah 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941 Son of Abbas Ali Deposed
41 Mohammad Reza Shah Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 son of Reza Shah Deposed during the Islamic Revolution

Notes and references

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See also

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