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Sfax

Sfax
Sifaks / ⵙⵉⴼⴰⴽⵙ / صفاقس
Hédi Chaker Street in Sfax
Hédi Chaker Street in Sfax
Sfax is located in Tunisia
Sfax
Coordinates:
Country Tunisia
Governorates Sfax Governorate
Government
 • Mayor Moncef Abdelhedi
Population (2014)
 • Total 330,440
Time zone CET (UTC+1)

Sfax (Tunisian Arabic: صفاقسAbout this sound Ṣfāqes ; Berber: Sifaks) is a city in Tunisia, located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Tunis. The city, founded in AD 849 on the ruins of Taparura and Thaenae, is the capital of the Sfax Governorate (about 860,000 inhabitants in 2005),[1] and a Mediterranean port. Sfax has a population of 340,000 (2005 estimate).[1] The main economic activities of Sfax are industries (phosphate processing), agriculture (olive and olive oil, nuts), fishing (largest fishing port in Tunisia) and trade (import-export). The city is often described as Tunisia's "second city" (after the capital Tunis).

Contents

  • History 1
  • Transport 2
  • Communications 3
    • Climate 3.1
  • Education 4
  • Sport 5
  • Notable people 6
  • International relations 7
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

History

Looking across the Place de la République towards Sfax city hall (photographed in 2005).

By the end of the 10th century Sfax had become an independent city-state. The city was conquered by Roger II of Sicily in 1148 and occupied until it was liberated in 1156 by local forces, and was briefly occupied by European forces again; this time by the Spanish, in the 16th century, before falling into Ottoman hands this time. Sfax became an integral base of the Barbary piracy, prompting an unsuccessful invasion by Venice in 1785. In the late 19th century Sfax and the rest of Tunisia were conquered by France and incorporated into the French empire. During World War II, the Axis powers used the city as a major base until British forces took it on 10 April 1943. After World War II, Tunisia was returned to France, but gained independence in 1956.

Transport

Sfax is served by a narrow gauge railway system of SNCFT that delivers phosphates and iron ore for export, but also sees passenger services to Tunis. Sfax is moreover served by Sfax – Thyna International Airport and Syfax Airlines with regularly scheduled flights to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Tripoli International Airport, and charter flights to Jeddah Airport for the pilgrimage to Mecca.

The A1 motorway connects Sfax with Tunis.

Communications

Founded in 1961, Radio Sfax broadcasts twenty hours a day[2] on MW 720 kHz/105.21 MHz.[3]

Climate

Climate data for Sfax
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
31.5
(88.7)
36.1
(97)
37.2
(99)
38.8
(101.8)
43.9
(111)
47.2
(117)
46.8
(116.2)
43.5
(110.3)
36.9
(98.4)
32.5
(90.5)
28.3
(82.9)
47.2
(117)
Average high °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
18.0
(64.4)
19.5
(67.1)
21.8
(71.2)
25.4
(77.7)
28.9
(84)
32.0
(89.6)
32.2
(90)
29.8
(85.6)
26.0
(78.8)
21.4
(70.5)
17.6
(63.7)
24.1
(75.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.3
(52.3)
12.2
(54)
14.0
(57.2)
16.4
(61.5)
19.8
(67.6)
23.4
(74.1)
26.0
(78.8)
26.7
(80.1)
24.8
(76.6)
21.0
(69.8)
15.9
(60.6)
12.2
(54)
18.6
(65.5)
Average low °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
6.5
(43.7)
8.4
(47.1)
11.0
(51.8)
14.4
(57.9)
17.8
(64)
19.9
(67.8)
21.1
(70)
19.8
(67.6)
16.1
(61)
10.6
(51.1)
6.7
(44.1)
13.2
(55.8)
Record low °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.0
(35.6)
6.1
(43)
9.6
(49.3)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
11.2
(52.2)
5.2
(41.4)
2.2
(36)
−1.0
(30.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.7
(0.894)
19.4
(0.764)
23.3
(0.917)
17.6
(0.693)
9.2
(0.362)
4.4
(0.173)
1.8
(0.071)
5.6
(0.22)
24.1
(0.949)
56.4
(2.22)
22.9
(0.902)
29.3
(1.154)
236.7
(9.319)
Average precipitation days 4 4 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 4 3 4 32
Average relative humidity (%) 65 63 63 63 62 60 59 63 65 66 65 66 63
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 201.6 238.7 258.0 310.0 333.0 378.2 347.2 273.0 241.8 210.0 195.3 3,185.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.4 7.2 7.7 8.6 10.0 11.1 12.2 11.2 9.1 7.8 7.0 6.3 8.7
Source: NOAA[4]
Sfax mean sea temperature[5]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
16 °C (61 °F) 15 °C (59 °F) 15 °C (59 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 19 °C (66 °F) 22 °C (72 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 22 °C (72 °F) 18 °C (64 °F)

Education

A 2015 astronaut photo of Sfax. Shown are the old city, part of the port, and the distinctive circular earth works of the Taparura redevelopment project.

The University of Sfax includes:

  • ENIS (École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Sfax) issued a number of well-known scientists and industrialists.[6]
  • ESCS (École Supérieure de Commerce de Sfax) issued a number of managers, Economy and Management researchers and young entrepreneurs.[7]
  • FLSHS (Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines de Sfax) issued a number of renowned poets and prose writers.[8]
  • Sfax Faculty of Medicine (Faculté de Médecine de Sfax).[9]
  • ISAAS (Institut Supérieur d'Administration des Affaires de Sfax)[10]
  • FSEGS (Faculté des Sciences Économiques et de Gestion de Sfax).[11]
  • ISIMS (Institut Supérieur d'Informatique et de Multimédia de Sfax).[12]
  • FDS(Faculté de Droit de Sfax)(http://www.fdsf.rnu.tn/)
  • ISAMS (Institut Supérieur des Arts et Métiers de Sfax)

Sport

  • CS Sfaxien, a club of football (soccer), volleyball, basketball and rugby.

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Sfax is twinned with:

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b LookLex Encyclopaedia accessed 10 July 2008
  2. ^ Jeter, James Phillip; Rampal, Kuldip R.; Cambridge, Vibert C.; Pratt, Cornelius B. (1996). International Afro mass media: a reference guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 130.  
  3. ^ Radio Tunis (2010). "Radio Sfax, official site". Radiodiffusion Television Tunisienne. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  4. ^ "Sfax Climate Normals 1961–1990".  
  5. ^ "Sfax Climate and Weather Averages, Tunisia". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  6. ^ enis.rnu.tn
  7. ^ escs.rnu.tn
  8. ^ flshs.rnu.tn
  9. ^ fmsf.rnu.tn
  10. ^ isaas.rnu.tn
  11. ^ fsegs.rnu.tn
  12. ^ isimsf.rnu.tn
  13. ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "Universitätsstadt Marburg Partnerstädte". marburg.de. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 

External links

  • Sfaxonline.com
  • Histoiredesfax.com
  • CSS.org.tn
  • Flysyphax.com
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