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Russo-Persian War (1722–23)

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Subject: Russo-Persian War (1804–13), Military history of Ukraine, Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376), History of Baku, Siege of Ochakov (1788)
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Russo-Persian War (1722–23)

Russo-Persian War (1722–1723)
Part of Russo-Persian Wars

Eugene Lanceray. Fleet of Peter the Great (1909).
Date 1722–1723
Location North Caucasus, South Caucasus and North Iran
Result Russian Victory
Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723)[1]
Territorial
changes
Russia gained Derbent, Baku, and the provinces of Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad. All returned to Persia a few years later.
Belligerents
 Russian Empire
Ukrainian Cossacks
Georgia
Safavid Persian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Peter the Great
Fyodor Apraksin
Mikhail Matyushkin
Danylo Apostol
Vakhtang VI
Shah Tahmasp II
Strength
Russian Army: 22,000
Cossacks: 22,000
Georgian-Armenian Army: 40,000
Total: 84,000
Gholam Regiments: 10,000
Safavid Tofangchian: 30,000
Topchi Brigade, Qizilbash Regiments:30,000
Casualties and losses
unknown unknown

Russo-Persian War, 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great,[2] was a war between Russia and Persia (Safavid Iran), triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of the declining Safavid Persia.

As a result of the war, the Safavids ceded many of their territories in the North Caucasus, South Caucasus, and northern Persia to Russia. However, all territories would be returned to Persia, now led by the emerging military genius Nader Shah several years later following the Treaty of Resht.

Campaign

Prior to the campaign, Peter I of Russia secured an alliance with a Georgian king Vakhtang VI of Kartli and with Catholicos of Armenia Asdvadzadur. These Christian rulers were seeking Russian aid in their conflicts with Persia and the expansionist Ottoman Empire.

In July 1722, the Tbilisi in November.

In December 1722 the Russian army and navy, under major general Mikhail Matyushkin, seized Rasht and in July 1723 proceeded to capture Baku. Russian military success and the Turkish invasion of Persian possessions in the Southern Caucasus in the spring of 1723, forced the government of Tahmasp II to sign a peace treaty at Saint Petersburg, which surrendered Derbent, Baku, and the Persian provinces of Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad to the Russians on September 12, 1723.[1]

Aftermath and consequences

In 1732, on the eve of the Russo-Turkish War, the government of Empress Anna Ioannovna returned all the annexed territories to Persia as a part of the Treaty of Resht, to construct an alliance with the Safavids against the Ottoman Empire.[3]

The sequel was disastrous for the Georgian rulers who had supported Peter's venture. In eastern Georgia, Alexander V of Imereti had to accept an Ottoman suzerainty on more stringent terms. The Ottomans, further, alarmed by the Russian intervention, strengthened their hold along the Caucasian coastline.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b Treaty of St Petersburg (1723), Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 850.
  2. ^ Elena Andreeva, Russia and Iran in the Great Game: Travelogues and Orientalism, (Routledge, 2007), 38.
  3. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 729.
  4. ^ Imago Mundi, Vol. 10: 99.

See also

References

  • Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  • The Armenian Rebellion of the 1720s and the Threat of Genocidal Reprisal
  • [1]
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