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Republic Day (Philippines)

Philippine Republic Day
The Flag of the United States is lowered while the Flag of the Philippines is raised during independence ceremonies, July 4, 1946
Official name Republic Day
Also called Filipino-American Friendship Day
Observed by Philippines
Type Secular, heritage, governmental
Significance

Initially, celebration of the establishment of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946

Later, celebration of friendship between the peoples of the Philippines and the United States
Date July 4
Next time 4 July 2017 (2017-07-04)
Frequency annual

Philippine Republic Day, also known as Filipino-American Friendship Day,[1] is a commemoration in the Philippines held annually on 4 July. It was formerly an official holiday designated as Independence Day, celebrating the signing of the Treaty of Manila, which granted Philippine Independence from the United States of America in 1946.[2]

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Observance 2
  • Delisting 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Background

The Philippine Islands were an American possession from 1898 to 1946, first as a territory and then as a Commonwealth beginning in 1935. Between 1941 and 1945, the Empire of Japan occupied the Islands during the Second World War; the Commonwealth government-in-exile headed by President Manuel Quezon was based in Australia and later in the United States.

A campaign to retake the country began in October 1944, when General Douglas MacArthur landed in Leyte along with Sergio Osmeña, who succeeded to the presidency after Quezon's death in 1944. The battles entailed long fierce fighting; some of the Japanese continued to fight until the official surrender of the Japan on 2 September 1945. The country gained complete independence on 4 July 1946.[3]

Observance

Philippines Independence Proclaimed, July 4, 1946

Initially, the nation's Independence Day holiday (Araw ng Kalayaan) was held on 4 July. President Diosdado Macapagal moved it to 12 June, the date in 1898 on which Emilio Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. Philippine Republic Day was created in its place and kept as a holiday under Macapagal,[4] coinciding with the United States's own Independence Day.[5]

In 1955, President Ramón Magsaysay had issued Presidential Proclamation № 212, s. 1955, which established the observance of Philippine American Day every 15 November —the anniversary of the inauguration of the Commonwealth.[2][6] Sometime under the rule of President Ferdinand Marcos, Philippine–American Day was renamed "Philippine–American Friendship Day" and moved to 4 July, overshadowing the observance of the date as Republic Day.[2] After the 1935 Constitution was suspended under Martial Law and later superseded by the 1972 Constitution, it was impolitic to remind the nation of the old, Third Republic.[2] This is why, when President Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation №. 2346 s. 1984, reference was made to Philippine–American Friendship Day, which was relegated to a working holiday without mention of Republic Day.[2]

In 1996, President Fidel V. Ramos celebrated the day as Republic Day.[2]

Delisting

The practice of celebrating Philippine–American Friendship Day and Republic Day as a non-working holiday was formally abolished in 1987 under President Corazon C. Aquino.[7] Section 26 of the Administrative Code of 1987 specified a list of regular holidays and nationwide special days that did not include July 4.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Delmendo, Sharon (2005). The Star-entangled Banner: One Hundred Years of America in the Philippines. UP Press. p. 132.  
    Slater, Judith J. (2004). Teen Life in Asia. Greenwood Publishing Grou. p. 185.  
     
  2. ^ a b c d e f Philippine Republic Day,  
  3. ^ TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (pdf), United Nations, retrieved 2007-12-10 .
  4. ^ Fisher, Max (2012). "The One Other Country That Celebrates the Fourth of July (Sort of)".  
  5. ^ Pamana. Cultural Center of the Philippines. 1972. 
    Vincent Alphonso Arino (1954). The Foreign Policy of the Republic of the Philippines. University of California, Berkeley. p. 89. 
  6. ^ "PROCLAMATION NO. 212". Government of the Philippines. November 4, 1955. 
  7. ^ "July 4th No Longer a Holiday in The Philippines". Associated Press. 1 July 1987. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  8. ^ "Administrative Code of 1987". Chan Robles Law Library. July 25, 1987. 

External links

  • Official Gazette: Philippine Republic Day
    • Official Gazette: Philippine Republic Day (older version)
  • July 4, 1946: True Philippine Independence Day
  • The Independence Day That Wasn't
  • June 12, 1898 as Independence Day
  • PHILIPPINES: Torn Between Two Colonisers -- Spain and America
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