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List of cetaceans

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List of cetaceans

Cetaceans
Temporal range: Early Eocene – recent
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Bottlenose dolphin breaching
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetartiodactyla[1]
Subgroups

The cetaceans are marine mammals characterised by having fusiform (streamlined) body shapes, paddle-shaped front limbs and vestigial hind limbs. Their tails have been flattened into flukes to aid propulsion. The cetaceans are included in the order Cetartiodactyla[2] with the Artiodactyla (the even-toed ungulates). Previously, they were all within their own order, Cetacea with Suborders Odontoceti and Mysticeti, but they are currently divided into two unranked taxa, the Odontoceti (the toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises) and the Mysticeti (the baleen whales). There are 90 living species of cetaceans (including the functionally extinct Yangtze dolphin[9]). In addition, numerous species of extinct cetaceans have been documented, but they are not listed here. This list contains only the known, extant cetacean species including several recent newly defined species.

Contents

  • Conventions 1
    • Conservation Status 1.1
    • Global Population Estimates 1.2
  • Mysticeti: baleen whales 2
    • Family Balaenidae: right whales 2.1
    • Family Balaenopteridae: rorquals 2.2
    • Family Eschrichtiidae: gray whale 2.3
    • Family Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whale 2.4
  • Odontoceti: toothed whales 3
    • Family Delphinidae: oceanic dolphins 3.1
    • Family Monodontidae: narwhal and beluga 3.2
    • Family Phocoenidae: porpoises 3.3
    • Family Physeteridae: sperm whale 3.4
    • Family Kogiidae: dwarf and pygmy sperm whales 3.5
    • Family Ziphiidae: beaked whales 3.6
    • Superfamily Platanistoidea: river dolphins 3.7
      • Family Iniidae: river dolphins 3.7.1
      • Family Lipotidae: baiji 3.7.2
      • Family Platanistidae: South Asian river dolphin 3.7.3
      • Family Pontoporiidae: La Plata river dolphin 3.7.4
  • See also 4
  • Footnotes 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

Conventions

Conservation Status

Conservation status codes listed follow the [10]). Clicking on the two letter code icon will externally link to IUCN Red List species pages. Clicking on the word will link within WorldHeritage to the article describing that status.

Global Population Estimates

Where available, the global population estimate has been listed. When not cited or footnoted differently, these are from the [10])

Mysticeti: baleen whales

The baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form the Mysticeti. Baleen whales are characterized by having baleen plates for filter feeding and two blowholes. During the embryonic phase, Mysticetes do have teeth but they are reabsorbed before birth [11]


Family Balaenidae: right whales

The Balaenidae family contains two genera and four species. All the Balaenidae whales have the following features:[12]

  • No ventral grooves
  • Distinctive head shape with strongly arched, narrow rostrum (anatomy) and bowed lower jaw
  • Lower lips that enfold the sides and front of the rostrum
  • Long, narrow, elastic baleen plates (up to 9 times longer than wide) with fine baleen fringes
  • Fusion of all the cervical vertebrae and other skeletal characteristics.
Genus Balaena Linnaeus, 1758 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Global Population Estimate Range Size Picture
Bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus
Linnaeus, 1758
Least Concern LC 12,682–39,950
60 tonnes
Genus Eubalaena Gray, 1864 – 3 species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List Status Global Population Estimate Range Size Picture
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis
Müller, 1776
Endangered EN 300-350
40–80 tonnes
North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica
Lacépède, 1818
Endangered EN 404-2,108[13]
60–80 tonnes
Southern right whale Eubalaena australis
Desmoulins, 1822
Least Concern LC 7,500
40–80 tonnes

Family Balaenopteridae: rorquals

Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with 9 species in two genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale, which can reach 150 tonnes, two others that easily pass 50 tonnes, and even the smallest of the group, the northern minke whale, reaches 9 tonnes. They take their name from a Norwegian word meaning "furrow whale": all members of the family have a series of longitudinal folds of skin running from below the mouth back to the navel (except the sei whale, which has shorter grooves). These are understood to allow the mouth to expand immensely when feeding. All rorquals have ventral grooves, and are the only cetaceans to have them. Additionally, they all have dorsal fins, broad, gently curving rostra and short baleen plates.[12]

Subfamily Balaenopterinae – one genus, eight species
Genus Balaenoptera – eight species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus
Linnaeus, 1758
EN 10,000–25,000
150-200 tonnes
Bryde's whale Balaenoptera brydei
Olsen, 1913
Data deficient (DD) 90,000–100,000
14–30 tonnes
Common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Lacépède, 1804
Least Concern (LC) Unknown
6-11 tonnes
Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus
Linnaeus, 1758
EN 100,000
45–75 tonnes
Omura's whale Balaenoptera omurai
Wada et al., 2003
Data deficient (DD) Unknown [cetacean needed]
Pygmy Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni
Anderson, 1879
Data deficient (DD) Unknown [cetacean needed]
Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis
Lesson, 1828
EN 57,000
20–25 tonnes
Southern minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis
Burmeister, 1867
Data Deficient (DD) 515,000
6-10 tonnes
Subfamily Megapterinae – 1 genus, 1 species
Genus Megaptera Gray, 1846 – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
Borowski, 1781
LC 80,000
25–30 tonnes

Family Eschrichtiidae: gray whale

The gray whale has been placed in a family of its own as it is sufficiently different from the right whales and the rorquals. The gray whale is the only gestation period of over a year, which is unusual for baleen whales.[12]

Genus Eschrichtius – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus
Lilljeborg, 1861
LC 26,000
15–40 tonnes

Family Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whale

The pygmy right whale shares several characteristics with the right whales, although having dorsal fins separates them from right whales, and they have a very distinctive jaw configuration. Pygmy right whales' heads are no more than one-fourth the size of their bodies, whereas the right whales' heads are about one-third the size of their bodies.[12]

Genus Caperea Gray, 1864 – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Pygmy right whale Caperea marginata
Gray, 1846
DD Unknown
3-3.5 tonnes

Odontoceti: toothed whales

The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) form a suborder of the cetaceans. As the name suggests, the suborder is characterized by having teeth (rather than baleen). Toothed whales are active hunters, feeding on fish, squid, and in some cases other marine mammals.

Family Delphinidae: oceanic dolphins

Oceanic dolphins are the members of the Delphinidae family of cetaceans. These aquatic mammals are related to whales and porpoises. As the name implies, these dolphins tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the river dolphins, although a few species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin are coastal or riverine. Six of the larger species in the Delphinidae, the killer whale (orca) and its relatives, are commonly called whales, rather than dolphins. They are also sometimes collectively known as "blackfish".

The Delphinidae are characterised by having distinct beaks (unlike the Phocoenidae), two or more fused cervical vertebrae and 20 or more pairs of teeth in their upper jaws. None is more than 4 m long.[12]

Genus Cephalorhynchus Gray, 1846 – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Commerson's dolphin Cephalorhynchus commersonii
Lacépède, 1804
DD 3,400
35–60 kilograms
Chilean dolphin Cephalorhynchus eutropia
Gray, 1846
NT Unknown
60 kg
Heaviside's dolphin Cephalorhynchus heavisidii
Gray, 1828
DD Unknown
40–75 kg
Hector's dolphin Cephalorhynchus hectori
Van Beneden, 1881
EN (subspecies maui CR) 2,000–2,500 (subspecies maui 55 (2012))
35–60 kg
Genus Steno – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Rough-toothed dolphin Steno bredanensis
Lesson, 1828
LC 150,000
100–135 kg
Genus Sousa – three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic humpback dolphin Sousa teuszi
Kükenthal, 1892
DD Unknown
100–150 kg
Indian humpback dolphin Sousa plumbea
Cuvier, 1829
DD Unknown
150–200 kg
Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis
Osbeck, 1765
DD Unknown
250–280 kg
Genus Sotalia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Costero Sotalia guianensis
Bénéden, 1864
DD Unknown
Solid colour

35–45 kg
Tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis
Gervais & Deville, 1853
DD Unknown
Hashed colour

35–45 kg
Genus Tursiops – three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus
Montagu, 1821
DD Unknown
150–650 kg
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus
Ehrenberg, 1833
DD Unknown [cetacean needed]
230 kg
Burrunan dolphin Tursiops australis DD Unknown [cetacean needed]
Genus Stenella Gray, 1866 – five species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis
Cuvier, 1829
DD 100,000
100 kg
Clymene dolphin Stenella clymene
Gray, 1846
DD Unknown
75–80 kg
Pantropical spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata
Gray, 1846
CD 3,000,000
100 kg
Spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris
Gray, 1828
CD Unknown
90 kg
Striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba
Meyen, 1833
CD 2,000,000
100 kg
Genus Delphinus – three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis
Linnaeus, 1758
LC
70–110 kg
Arabian common dolphin Delphinus tropicalis
van Bree, 1971
Unknown Unknown
65–105 kg
Long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis
Gray, 1828
CD Unknown[14]
80–150 kg
Genus Lagenodelphis – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei
Fraser, 1956
DD Unknown
209 kg
Genus Lagenorhynchus Gray, 1846 – six species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus
Gray, 1828
LC 200,000 – 300,000
235 kg
Dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus
Gray, 1828
DD Unknown
100 kg
Hourglass dolphin Lagenorhynchus cruciger
Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
LC 140,000
90–120 kg
Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
Gill, 1865
LC 1,000,000
85–150 kg
Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis
Peale, 1848
DD Unknown[15]
115 kg
White-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris
Gray, 1846
LC 100,000[16]
180 kg
Genus Lissodelphis – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Northern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis borealis
Peale, 1848
LC 400,000[17]
115 kg
Southern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis peronii
Lacépède, 1804
DD Unknown[18]
60–100 kg
Genus Grampus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus
G. Cuvier, 1812
DD Unknown[19]
300 kg
Genus Peponocephala – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Melon-headed whale Peponocephala electra
Gray, 1846
LC Unknown[20]
225 kg
Genus Feresa – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata
Gray, 1875
DD Unknown[21]
160–350 kg
Genus Pseudorca – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens
Owen, 1846
LC Unknown[22]
1.5-2 tonnes
Genus Orcinus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Killer whale Orcinus orca
Linnaeus, 1758
CD 100,000[23]
4.5 tonnes
Genus Globicephala – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas
Traill, 1809
DD Unknown[24]
3-3.5 tonnes
Short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus
Gray, 1846
CD Unknown[25]
1–3 tonnes
Genus Orcaella Gray, 1866 – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni
Beasley, Robertson & Arnold, 2005
Unknown Unknown
130–145 kg
Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris
Gray, 1866
DD Unknown
130 kg

Family Monodontidae: narwhal and beluga

The cetacean family Monodontidae comprises two unusual whale species, the narwhal, in which the male has a long tusk, and the white beluga.

The Monodontidae lack dorsal fins, which have been replaced by tough, fibrous ridges just behind the midpoints of their bodies and are probably an adaptation to swimming under ice, as both do in their Arctic habitat. The flippers are small, rounded and tend to curl up at the ends in adulthood. All, or almost all, the cervical vertebrae are unfused, allowing their heads to be turned independently of their bodies. None has any throat grooves.[12]

Genus Monodon – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Narwhal(e) Monodon monoceros
Linnaeus, 1758
DD 25,000[26]
900-1,500 kilograms
Genus Delphinapterus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Beluga Delphinapterus leucas
Pallas, 1776
Vulnerable (VU) 100,000[27]
1.5 tonnes

Family Phocoenidae: porpoises

Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae. They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen. The most obvious visible difference between the two groups is porpoises have spatulate (flattened) teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphins. In addition, porpoises are relatively r-selected compared with dolphins: that is, they rear more young more quickly than dolphins. All six species have small flippers, notched tail flukes, and no beaks. All carry at least 11 pairs of small teeth in their upper and lower jaws.

Porpoises, divided into six species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore. Probably best known is the harbour porpoise, which can be found across the Northern Hemisphere.

Genus Neophocaena – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides
Cuvier, 1829
DD[28] Unknown[29]
30–45 kg
Genus Phocoena – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena
Linnaeus, 1758
VU Unknown[30]
75 kg
Vaquita Phocoena sinus
Norris & McFarland, 1958
Critically Endangered (CE) 500[31]
50 kg
Spectacled porpoise Phocoena dioptrica
Lahille, 1912
DD Unknown[32]
60–84 kg
Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis
Burmeister, 1865
DD Unknown[33]
50–75 kg
Genus Phocoenoides – 1 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Dall's porpoise Phocoenoides dalli
True, 1885
CD 1,100,000[34]
130–200 kg

Family Physeteridae: sperm whale

The sperm whale characteristically has a large, squarish head one-third the length of its body; the blowhole is slightly to the left hand side; the skin is usually wrinkled; and it has no teeth on the upper jaw.

Genus Physeter – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus
Linnaeus, 1758
VU 200,000–2,000,000[35]
25–50 tonnes

Family Kogiidae: dwarf and pygmy sperm whales

The dwarf and pygmy sperm whales resemble sperm whales, but are far smaller. They are dark grey, dorsally, while ventrally they are lighter. They have blunt, squarish heads with narrow, underslung jaws; the flippers are set far forward, close to the head and their dorsal fins are set far back down the body.

Genus Kogia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima
Owen, 1866
LC Unknown[36]
250 kg
Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps
Blainville, 1838
LC Unknown[36]
400 kg

Family Ziphiidae: beaked whales

A beaked whale is any of at least 21 species of small whale in the family Ziphiidae. They are one of the least-known families of large mammals: several species have only been described in the last two decades, and it is entirely possible that more remain as yet undiscovered. Six genera have been identified.

They possess a unique feeding mechanism known as suction feeding. Instead of catching their prey with teeth, it is sucked into their oral cavity. Their tongue can move very freely, and when suddenly retracted at the same time as the gular floor is distended, the pressure immediately drops within their mouth and the prey is sucked in with the water. The family members are characterized by having a lower jaw that extends at least to the tip of the upper jaw, a shallow or non-existent notch between the tail flukes, a dorsal fin set well back on the body, three of four fused cervical vertebrae, extensive skull asymmetry and two conspicuous throat grooves forming a 'V' pattern.[12]

Genus Ziphius – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris
G. Cuvier, 1823
DD Unknown[37]
2–3 tonnes
Genus Berardius – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Arnoux's beaked whale Berardius arnuxii
Duvernoy, 1851
CD Unknown[38]
8 tonnes
Baird's beaked whale Berardius bairdii
Stejneger, 1883
CD Unknown[39]
12 tonnes
Genus Tasmacetus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Shepherd's beaked whale Tasmacetus shepherdi
Oliver, 1937
DD Unknown[40]
2-2.5 tonnes
Subfamily Hyperoodontidae – three genera, 17 species
Genus Indopacetus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Tropical bottlenose whale Indopacetus pacificus
Longman, 1926
DD Unknown[41]
3,5-4 tonnes
Genus Hyperoodon – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Northern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon ampullatus
Forster, 1770
CD 10,000[42]
7 tonnes
Southern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon planifrons
Flower, 1882
CD 500,000
6 tonnes
Genus Mesoplodon Gervais, 1850 – 14 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Andrews' beaked whale Mesoplodon bowdoini
Andrews, 1908
DD Unknown
1 tonne
Spade-toothed whale Mesoplodon traversii, syn. Mesoplodon bahamondi
Gray, 1874
DD Unknown
1.2 tonnes
Blainville's beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris
Blainville, 1817
DD Unknown
Gervais' beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus
Gervais, 1855
DD Unknown
1.2 tonnes
Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale Mesoplodon ginkgodens
Nishiwaki & Kamiya, 1958
DD Unknown
1.5 tonnes
Gray's beaked whale Mesoplodon grayi
von Haast, 1876
DD Unknown
1.5 tonnes
Hector's beaked whale Mesoplodon hectori
Gray, 1871
DD Unknown
1 tonne
Hubbs' beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
Moore, 1963
DD Unknown
1.4 tonnes
Perrin's beaked whale Mesoplodon perrini
Dalebout, Mead, Baker, Baker, & van Helding, 2002
DD Unknown
1.3–1.5 tonnes
Pygmy beaked whale Mesoplodon peruvianus
Reyes, Mead, and Van Waerebeek, 1991
DD Unknown
800 kg
Sowerby's beaked whale Mesoplodon bidens
Sowerby, 1804
DD Unknown
1-1.3 tonnes
Stejneger's beaked whale Mesoplodon stejnegeri
True, 1885
DD Unknown
1.5 tonnes
Strap-toothed whale Mesoplodon layardii
Gray, 1865
DD Unknown
2 tonnes
True's beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus
True, 1913
DD Unknown
1.4 tonnes

Superfamily Platanistoidea: river dolphins

River dolphins are five species of dolphins which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. They are classed in the Platanistoidea superfamily of cetaceans. Four species live in fresh water rivers. The fifth species, the La Plata dolphin, lives in saltwater estuaries and the ocean. However, it is scientifically classed in the river dolphin family rather than the oceanic dolphin family. All species have adaptations to facilitate fish catching: a long, forceps-like beak with numerous small teeth in both jaws, broad flippers to allow tight turns, small eyes, and unfused neck vertebrae to allow the head to move in relation to the body.

Family Iniidae: river dolphins

This family contains one genus of two species, although the Amazon river dolphin (I. geoffrensis) has been divided into three subspecies:

  • I. geoffrensis geoffrensis – Amazon basin population (excluding Madeira river drainage area, above the Teotonio Rapids in Bolivia)
  • I. geoffrensis humboldtiana – Orinoco basin population
  • Bolivian river dolphinI. g. boliviensis – Amazon basin population in the Madeira drainage area
Genus Inia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis
Blainville, 1817
VU Unknown
150 kg
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Araguaian river dolphin Inia araguaiaensis
Hrbek, Da Silva, Dutra, Farias, 2014
Unknown Unknown
Araguaian river dolphin in blue

150 kg

Family Lipotidae: baiji

The Lipotidae family is another monotypic taxon, containing only the baiji. Fossil records suggest the dolphin first appeared 25 million years ago and migrated from the Pacific Ocean to the Yangtze River 20 million years ago.[43] The species was declared functionally extinct in 2006 after an expedition to record population numbers found no specimens.

Genus Lipotes – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Baiji Lipotes vexillifer
Miller, 1918
CE, possibly extinct 13[44]
130 kg

Family Platanistidae: South Asian river dolphin

The Platanistidae were originally thought to hold only one species (the South Asian river dolphin), but based on differences in skull structure, vertebrae and lipid composition, scientists declared the two populations as separate species in the early 1970s.[45] In 1998, the results of these studies were questioned and the classification reverted to the pre-1970 consensus. Thus, at present, two subspecies are recognized in the genus Platanista, P. gangetica minor (the Indus dolphin) and P. g. gangetica (the Ganges river dolphin).[46]

Genus Platanista – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
South Asian river dolphin Platanista gangetica
Roxburgh, 1801
EN 1,100[47]
200 kg

Family Pontoporiidae: La Plata river dolphin

The La Plata river dolphin is the only species of the Pontoporiidae family and of the Pontoporia genus.

Genus Pontoporia – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
La Plata dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei
Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844
DD 4,000–4,500
50 kg

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ The use of Order [6] of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world. See Cetartiodactyla and Marine mammal articles for further discussion.
  2. ^ Based on molecular and morphological research, the cetaceans genetically and morphologically fall firmly within the [6] of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world. Some others, including many marine mammalogists and paleontologists, favor retention of Order Cetacea with the two suborders in the interest of taxonomic stability. See Cetartiodactyla and Marine mammal articles for further discussion.

References

  1. ^ a b Agnarsson, I.; May-Collado, LJ. (2008). "The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 48 (3): 964–985.  
  2. ^ a b Price, SA.; Bininda-Emonds, OR.; Gittleman, JL. (2005). "A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals – Cetartiodactyla". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80 (3): 445–473.  
  3. ^ a b Montgelard, C.; Catzeflis, FM.; Douzery, E. (1997). "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution 14 (5): 550–559.  
  4. ^ a b Spaulding, M.; O'Leary, MA.; Gatesy, J. (2009). "Relationships of Cetacea -Artiodactyla- Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution". PLoS ONE 4 (9): e7062.  
  5. ^ a b Cetacean Species and Taxonomy. iucn-csg.org
  6. ^ a b "The Society for Marine Mammalogy's Taxonomy Committee List of Species and subspecies".
  7. ^ Geisler, Jonathan H.; Uden, Mark D. (2005). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Extinct Cetartiodactyls: Results of Simultaneous Analyses of Molecular, Morphological, and Stratigraphic Data". Journal of Mammalian Evolution 12 (1–2): 145–160.  
  8. ^ Graur, D.; Higgins, G. (1994). "Molecular evidence for the inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution 11 (3): 357–364.  
  9. ^ Samuel T Turvey, Robert L Pitman, Barbara L Taylor, Jay Barlow, Tomonari Akamatsu, Leigh A Barrett, Xiujiang Zhao, Randall R Reeves, Brent S Stewart, Kexiong Wang, Zhuo Wei, Xianfeng Zhang, L.T Pusser, Michael Richlen, John R Brandon, Ding Wang (2007). "First human-caused extinction of a cetacean species?". Biology Letters 3 (5): 537–540.  
  10. ^ a b "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  11. ^ Karlsen, K. (1962). "Development of tooth germs and adjacent structures in the whalebone whale (Balaenoptera physalus (L.))". Hvalrådets Skrifter: Scientific Results of Marine Biological Research 45: 1–56. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Dr. Anthony R. (1991). Whales and Dolphins. London: Salamander Books.  
  13. ^ Miyashita T. and Kato H. 1998. Recent data on the status of right whales in the NW Pacific Ocean. International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, UK.
  14. ^ The total population is unknown but numbers in the hundreds of thousands.
  15. ^ Total population unknown but thought to be locally common – it is the most common dolphin found around the Falkland Islands
  16. ^ Estimates of various stocks throughout the North Atlantic give an overall value into the high tens or low hundreds of thousands.
  17. ^ Varying population estimates for areas around California and the North Pacific give a total of up to 400,000
  18. ^ Surveys suggest this is the most common dolphin off of Chilean waters.
  19. ^ The population around the continental shelf of the United States has been recorded to be in excess of 60,000. In the Pacific, a census recorded 175,000 individuals in eastern tropical waters and 85,000 in the west. No global estimate of population exists.
  20. ^ Estimates for eastern tropical Pacific are 45,000 and another recent survey estimates population to be 1,200 for the eastern Sulu Sea, no global estimate is known.
  21. ^ The only population estimate is of 38,900 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean
  22. ^ The total population is unknown. The eastern Pacific was estimated to have in excess of 40,000 individuals and is probably the home of the largest grouping.
  23. ^ Local estimates include 70–80,000 in the Antarctic, 8,000 in the tropical Pacific (although tropical waters are not the orca's preferred environment, the sheer size of this area — 19 million square kilometres — means there are thousands of orcas), up to 2,000 off Japan, 1,500 off the cooler northeast Pacific and 1,500 off Norway.
  24. ^ Total population is not known. There are estimated to be in excess of 200,000 in the Southern Ocean. The North Atlantic population is not known.
  25. ^ Total population not known. There are 150,000 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. There are estimated to be more than 30,000 animals in the western Pacific, off the coast of Japan.
  26. ^ Aerial surveys suggest a population of around 20,000 individuals. When submerged animals are also taken into account, the true figure may be in excess of 25,000.
  27. ^ There are estimated to be 40,000 individuals in the Beaufort Sea, 25,000 in Hudson Bay, 18,000 in the Bering Sea and 28,000 in the Canadian High Arctic. The population in the St. Lawrence estuary is estimated to be around 1000.
  28. ^ There are not enough data to place finless porpoises on the endangered species list, except in China, where they are endangered. Their propensity for staying close to shore places them in great danger from fishing.
  29. ^ There are no good estimates of the animals' abundance. However a comparison of two surveys, one from the late 1970s and the other from 1999/2000 shows a decline in population and distribution.
  30. ^ Several surveys have been taken, although large gaps of data are missing, so an overall value cannot be achieved. In the eastern Pacific Ocean: Central California 4,120; Northern California 9,250; Oregon and Washington 26,175. In the Atlantic Ocean: Gulf of Maine 67,500; Skagerrak and Belt Seas 36,046; North Sea 279,367; Ireland and western UK 36,280.
  31. ^ Only few serious attempts have been made to estimate the total size of the vaquita population. Varying numbers have been obtained although an average of about 500 is usually found.
  32. ^ Nothing is known of the abundance of this porpoise. It was the most commonly encountered species during preliminary beach surveys undertaken on Tierra del Fuego.
  33. ^ There are no quantitative data on abundance.
  34. ^ The most recent estimate for the North Pacific and Bering Sea is 1,186,000.
  35. ^ The total number of sperm whales throughout the world is unknown. Crude estimates, obtained by surveying small areas and extrapolating the result to all the world's oceans, range from 200,000 to 2,000,000 individuals.
  36. ^ a b No global population estimates have been made. One survey estimated a population of about 11,000 in the eastern Pacific.
  37. ^ Because of the difficulty of identifying the species the total global population is unknown.
  38. ^ Arnoux's beaked whales seem to be relatively abundant in Cook Strait during summer
  39. ^ Virtually nothing is known about the abundance of Baird's beaked whales, except they are not rare as was formerly thought.
  40. ^ Nothing is known about the relative abundance of this species or its population composition.
  41. ^ A 2002 survey estimates there are 766 animals around Hawaii. No other population estimates exist for other locales.
  42. ^ Total population is unknown but likely to be of the order of 10,000.
  43. ^ Wang, Yongchen (2007-01-10). "Farewell to the Baiji". China Dialogue. Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  44. ^ A survey from November–December 2006 failed to find any individuals. Another survey, from 1997, counted only 13 individuals. In 1986, surveys estimated the number to be at about 300.
  45. ^ Pilleri, G., Marcuzzi, G. and Pilleri, O., 1982. Speciation in the Platanistoidea, systematic, zoogeographical and ecological observations on recent species. Investigations on Cetacea, 14: 15–46.
  46. ^ Rice, DW (1998). Marine mammals of the world: Systematics and distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy.  
  47. ^ Estimates give values of 1,100 Indus river dolphins and maybe as few as 20 Ganges river dolphins.

Further reading

  • Rice, Dale W. (1998). Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution. Society of Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication No. 4.  
  • Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R.L., Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743.  
  • "Red List of Threatened Species".  

External links

  • Society for Marine Mammalogy's Taxonomy Committee List of Marine Mammal Species and subspecies
  • CMS Small Cetaceans


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