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List of Mongol states

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List of Mongol states

This is a list of Mongol states. The Mongols are responsible for establishing many states such as the vast Mongol Empire and its descendants. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

Pre-modern states

Name Years Area Map Capital
Khanates in the 10th-12th centuries
Khamag Mongol Khanate 10th century–1206
Khereid Khanate 10th century–1203
Merkit Khanate 11th–mid 12 century
Naiman Khanate –1204
Tatar Khanate 6th—10th century/(9th – mid 12th century?)
Mongol Empire and Yuan dynasty
Mongol Empire 1206–1368 33,000,000 km2[1][2] Avarga (1206–35)
Karakorum (1235–60)
Khanbaliq (1260–1368)
Yuan dynasty 1271-1368 14,000,000 km2(1310)[3] Khanbaliq
(Dadu, Beijing)
Golden Horde
Golden Horde 1240–1502 6,000,000 km2(1310)[1] Sarai Batu
Great Horde 1466–1502
Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s 3,500,000 km2(1310)[1][3] Almaliq
Qarshi
Western Chagatai Khanate 1340s–1370
Moghulistan 1340–1462
Kara Del Khanate 1383–1513
Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate 1256–1335 3,750,000 km2
[1][3]
Maragha (1256–1265)
Tabriz (1265–1306)
Soltaniyeh (1306–1335)
Chobanids 1335–1357 Tabriz
Injuids 1335–1357 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411–1432)
Jalayirid Sultanate 1335–1432 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411–1432)
Arghun dynasty 1479?–1599?
Genghisid Northern Yuan dynasty
Northern Yuan dynasty
1368–1691 5,000,000 km2(1550)[3] Shangdu (1368–69)
Yingchang (1369–70)
Karakorum (1371–88)
Khotogoid Khanate
(subject of the Northern Yuan)
late 16th – late 17th century in Mongolia
Oirats - Non-Genghisid states
Four Oirat 1399–1634 1,000,000 km2
(15th - late 16th)
~1,600,000 km2
(early 17th century)
Dzungar Khanate 1634–1758 3,500,000—4,000,000 km2
Khoshut Khanate 1642?–1717 ~1,400,000 km2
Kalmyk Khanate 1630–1771
Timurid states (Persianate Turco-Mongol states)
Timurid Empire 1370–1507 4,400,000 km2
(1405)
Samarkand (1370–1505)
Herat(1505–1507)
Mughal Empire 1526–1857 3,200,000 km2
(1700)
Agra (1526–1571)
Fatehpur Sikri (1571–1585)
Lahore (1585–1598)
Agra (1598–1648)
Shahjahanabad/Delhi (1648–1857)

Modern states

Name Years Area Map Capital
Balagad state
(Buryats)
1919–1926[4][5][6][7] In Kizhinginsky District, Buryatia
Republic of Oirat-Kalmyk 1930 Kalmykia
Republic of Southern Mongolia 1945 In Inner Mongolia
State of Mongolia
(Bogd Khaganate)
1911-1924 Ikh Khuree
(Ulaanbaatar)
People's Republic of Mongolia 1924-1992 Ulaanbaatar
Mongolia 1992–present 1,564,115.75 km2

Autonomous areas

In Russia

Name Years Capital Area Map
State of Buryat-Mongolia 1917–1921 Chita
Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast 1922–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast 1921–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1923–1958 Ulan-Ude
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1958–1992
Republic of Buryatia 1992–present 351,300 km2
Agin Buryat-Mongol National Okrug 1937–1958 Aginskoye
Agin-Buryat National Okrug 1958–1977
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1977–2008 9,6002
Ust-Orda Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Okrug 1937–1958 Ust-Ordynsky
Ust-Orda Buryat National Okrug 1958–1978
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1978–2008 22,1382
Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast 1920–1935
1957–1958
Astrakhan (till 1928)
Elista
Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1935–1943
1958–1990
Elista
Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992
Kalmyk Republic-Halmg-Tangch 1992–1994
Kalmyk Republic 1994–present 76,100 km2

In China

Name Years Capital Area Map
Mengjiang state 1936–1945 Kalgan
(Khaalgan)
Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region 1947–present Huhhot 1,183,000 km2
Gansu Province
Subei Mongol Autonomous County
Hebei Province
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County
Heilongjiang Province
Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County
Jilin Province
Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County
Liaoning Province
Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County
Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County
Qinghai Province
Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Henan Mongol Autonomous County
Xinjiang Province
Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Korla 462,700 km2
Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Bortala
(Bortal)
Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County Hoboksar
(Khovogsair)

See also

Maps

References

  1. ^ a b c d Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2006). East-West Orientation of Historical Empires.Journal of World-Systems Research (University of Connecticut). 12 (no. 2): 219–229.
  2. ^ Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.
  3. ^ a b c d Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504.
  4. ^ Бидия Дандарон (Russian)
  5. ^ Балагатское движение (Russian)
  6. ^ Теократическое движение в Хоринском ведомстве Бурятии :1919–1926 гг. (Russian)
  7. ^ БАЛАГАТСКОЕ ДВИЖЕНИЕ (Russian)

Bibliography

  • Weiers, Michael (ed.) (1986): Die Mongolen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Dughlát Muhammad Haidar, Norbert Elias, Edward Denison Ross - The Tarikh-i-rashidi
  • Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank -The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368
  • William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, J. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran, 5
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov - Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system
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