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Jacobin (politics)

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Jacobin (politics)

Class">The Making of the English Working Class. Welsh Jacobins include William Jones, a radical patriot who was a keen disciple of Voltaire. Rather than preaching revolution, Jones believed that an exodus from Wales was required and that a new Welsh colony should be founded in the United States.[4]

Austria

In the correspondence of Metternich and other leaders of the repressive policies that followed the second fall of Napoleon in 1815, Jacobin is the term commonly applied to anyone with liberal tendencies, such as the emperor Alexander I of Russia.

United States

Early Federalist-leaning American newspapers during the French Revolution referred to the Democratic-Republican party as the "Jacobin Party". The most notable examples are the Gazette of the United States, published in Philadelphia, and the Delaware and Eastern Shore Advertiser, published in Wilmington, during the elections of 1798.

In modern American politics, the term Jacobin is often used to describe extremists of any party who demand ideological purity. For instance, in the lead-up to the 1964 Republican National Convention, the press referred to supporters of the insurgent Arizona conservative Barry Goldwater as "Cactus Jacobins" in their effort to unseat the moderate East Coast branch of the party (see Rockefeller Republican).[5] L. Brent Bozell, Jr. has written in Goldwater's seminal The Conscience of a Conservative (1960) that "Throughout history, true Conservatism has been at war equally with autocrats and with 'democratic' Jacobins."[6] In 2010 a progressive American publication, Jacobin, was founded.

Tea Party

The term was employed in 2009–2010, in reference to the advent of the Tea Party movement. For example, Eve Fairbanks described right-wing opponents of moderate Republican Congressman Wayne Gilchrest as "Jacobin conservatives" in The New Republic.[7] In the 27 May 2010, issue of The New York Review of Books, Columbia professor Mark Lilla analyzed five recent books dealing with American political party discontent in a review titled, "The Tea Party Jacobins".[8]

Allegorical usage

The conventionalized scrawny, French revolutionary John Bull, dressed like an English country squire. C. L. R. James also used the term to refer to revolutionaries during the Haitian Revolution in his book The Black Jacobins.

See also

References

  1. ^ Tony Judt. Marxism and the French Left: Studies on Labour and Politics in France, 1830–1981. New York, New York, USA; London, England, UK: New York University Press, 2011. Pp. 108.
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Ibid, pp. 81-82
  4. ^  
  5. ^
  6. ^ Goldwater, Barry M. (1960). The Conscience of a Conservative. Shepherdsville, KY: Victor Publishing Company. p. 12. 
  7. ^ Fairbanks, Eve (5 November 2008). "Unsafe At Any District".  
  8. ^ "The Tea Party Jacobins", Mark Lilla, The New York Review of Books, 27 May 2010, p.53
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