World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Iranian Calendar

Article Id: WHEBN0000939277
Reproduction Date:

Title: Iranian Calendar  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 11th century, Economy of Iran, Zoroastrian calendar, Bank Sepah, Gholam-Hossein Banan, Chaharshanbe Suri, Hassan Taqizadeh, Asha, Persian Constitutional Revolution
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Iranian Calendar

Template:Today/AD/SH/AH

For the official calendar in Iran and Afghanistan, see Solar Hijri calendar

The Iranian calendars (Persian: گاه‌شماری ایرانیGāhŝomāriye Irāni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia). One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes.

The modern Iranian calendar (Solar Hijri calendar (SH)) is now the official calendar in Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). This determination of starting moment is more accurate than the Gregorian calendar as far as predicting the date of the vernal equinox is concerned because it uses astronomical calculation rather than mathematical rules.[1] but requires consulting an astronomical almanac.

Its years are designated AP, short for Anno Persico. The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a Solar Hijri year. A short table of year correspondences between the Persian and Gregorian calendars is provided below.

History

Ancient calendars

Although the earliest evidence of Iranian calendrical traditions is from the second millennium BCE, predating the appearance of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, the first fully preserved calendar is that of the Achaemenids. Throughout recorded history, Persians have been keen on the idea and importance of having a calendar. They were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar and have long favoured a solar over lunar and lunisolar approaches. The sun has always been a symbol in Iranian culture and is closely related to the folklore regarding Cyrus the Great.[2]

Old Persian calendar

Old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on the Babylonian system (the Babylonian Calendar was lunar) and modified for their beliefs. Days were not named. The months had two or three divisions depending on the phase of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days were named for festivals or activities of the pastoral year. A 13th month was added every six years to keep the calendar synchronized with the seasons.

The following table lists the Old Persian months.[3]

Order Corresponding Julian months Old Persian Elamite spelling Meaning Corresponding Babylonian month
1 March–April Ādukanaiša Hadukannaš uncertain Nīsannu
2 April–May Θūravāhara Turmar Possibly "(Month of) strong spring" Ayyāru
3 May–June Θāigraciš Sākurriziš "Garlic-collecting month" Sīmannu
4 June–July Garmapada Karmabataš "Heat-station (month)" Du'ūzu
5 July–August Turnabaziš Ābu
6 August–September Karbašiyaš Ulūlū
7 September–October Bāgayādiš Bakeyatiš "(Month) of the worship of baga (god, perhaps Mithra)" Tašrītu
8 October–November *Vrkazana Markašanaš "(Month) of wolf killing" Arahsamna
9 November–December Āçiyādiya Hašiyatiš "(Month) of the worship of the fire" Kisilīmu
10 December–January Anāmaka Hanamakaš "Month of the nameless god(?)" Tebētu
11 January–February *Θwayauvā Samiyamaš "The terrible one" Šabāţu
12 February–March Viyax(a)na Miyakannaš "Digging-up (month)" Addāru

Zoroastrian calendar

Main article: Zoroastrian calendar

The first calendars based on Zoroastrian cosmology appeared in the later Achaemenid period (650 to 330 BCE). They evolved over the centuries, but month names changed little until now.

The unified Achaemenid empire required a distinctive Iranian calendar, and one was devised in Egyptian tradition, with 12 months of 30 days, each dedicated to a yazata (Eyzad), and four divisions resembling the Semitic week. Four days per month were dedicated to Ahura Mazda and seven were named after the six Amesha Spentas. Thirteen days were named after Fire, Water, Sun, Moon, Tiri and Geush Urvan (the soul of all animals), Mithra, Sraosha (Soroush, yazata of prayer), Rashnu (the Judge), Fravashi, Bahram (yazata of victory), Raman (Ramesh meaning peace), and Vata, the divinity of the wind. Three were dedicated to the female divinities, Daena (yazata of religion and personified conscious), Ashi (yazata of fortune) and Arshtat (justice). The remaining four were dedicated to Asman (lord of sky or Heaven), Zam (earth), Manthra Spenta (the Bounteous Sacred Word) and Anaghra Raocha (the 'Endless Light' of paradise).

The month names and their modern versions are given in the following table.

Order Avestan name of the Yazata (in the genitive) Approximate meaning of the name Pahlavi Middle Persian Modern Iranian Persian
Romanized English Romanized Native Script Romanized
1 Fravašinąm (Guardian spirits, souls of the righteous) Frawardīn فروردین Farvardīn
2 Ašahe Vahištahe "Best Truth" / "Best Righteousness" Ardwahišt اردیبهشت Ordībehešt
3 Haurvatātō "Wholeness" / "Perfection" Xordād خرداد Xordād
4 Tištryehe "Sirius" Tīr تیر Tīr
5 Amərətātō "Immortality" Amurdād مرداد Mordād
6 Xšaθrahe Vairyehe "Desirable Dominion" Šahrewar شهریور Šahrīvar
7 Miθrahe "Covenant" Mihr مهر Mehr
8 Apąm "Waters" Ābān آبان Ābān
9 Āθrō "Fire" Ādur آذر Āzar
10 Daθušō "The Creator" (i.e. Ahura Mazda) Day دی Dey
11 Vaŋhə̄uš Manaŋhō "Good Mind" Wahman بهمن Bahman
12 Spəntayā̊ Ārmatōiš "Holy Devotion" Spandarmad اسفند Esfand

The calendar had a significant impact on religious observance. It fixed the pantheon of major divinities, and also ensured that their names were uttered often, since at every Zoroastrian act of worship the yazatas of both day and month were invoked. It also clarified the pattern of festivities; for example, Mitrakanna or Mehregan was celebrated on Mithra day of Mithra month, and the Tiri festival (Tiragan) was celebrated on Tiri day of the Tiri month.

After the conquests by Alexander of Macedon and his death, the Persian territories fell to one of his generals, Seleucus (312 BCE), starting the Seleucid dynasty of Iran. Based on the Greek tradition, Seleucids introduced the practice of dating by era rather than by the reign of individual kings. Their era became known as that of Alexander, or later the Seleucid era. Since the new rulers were not Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian priests lost their function at the royal courts, and so resented the Seleucids. Although they began dating by eras, they established their own era of Zoroaster.

That was the first serious attempt to determine the dates associated with the prophet Zoroaster's life. Priests had no Zoroastrian historical sources, and so turned to Babylonian archives famous in the ancient world. From these they learned that a great event in Persian history took place 228 years before the era of Alexander. In fact, this was the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. But the priests misinterpreted this date to be the time the "true faith" was revealed to their prophet, and since Avestan literature indicates that revelation happened when Zoroaster was 30 years old, 568 BCE was taken as his year of birth. The date entered written records as the beginning of the era of Zoroaster, and indeed, the Persian Empire. This incorrect date is still mentioned in many current encyclopedias as Zoroaster's birth date.

Modifications by Parthians, Ardashir I, Hormizd I, Yazdgerd III

The Parthians (Arsacid dynasty) adopted the same calendar system with minor modifications, and dated their era from 248 BCE, the date they succeeded the Seleucids. Their names for the months and days are Parthian equivalents of the Avestan ones used previously, differing slightly from the Middle Persian names used by the Sassanians. For example in Achaemenid times the modern Persian month 'Day' was called Dadvah (Creator), in Parthian it was Datush and the Sassanians named it Dadv/Dai (Dadar in Pahlavi).

In 224 CE, Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty, added five days at the end of the year, and named them 'Gatha' or 'Gah' days after the ancient Zoroastrian hymns of the same name. This was a modification of the 365-day calendar adopted by Julius Caesar in 46 BCE, based on the Egyptian solar calendar. Iranians had known about the Egyptian system for centuries but never used it. The new system created confusion and met resistance. Many rites were practised over many days to make sure no holy days were missed. To this day many Zoroastrian feasts have two dates.

To simplify the situation, Ardeshir's grandson, Hormizd I, linked the new and old holy days into continual six-day feasts. Nowruz was an exception, as the first and the sixth day of the month were celebrated separately, and the sixth became more significant as Zoroaster's birthday. But the reform did not solve all the problems, and Yazdgerd III, the last ruler, introduced the final changes. The year 632 was chosen as the beginning of a new era, and this last imperial Persian calendar is known as the Yazdgerdi calendar.

Medieval era: Jalali calendar

Main article: Jalali calendar

Modern calendar: Solar Hijri (SH)

Main article: Solar Hijri calendar
Main article: Solar Hijri calendar § Solar Hijri algorithmic calendar

See also

Iran portal

References

Bibliography

  • Taqîzâda, Sayyid Ḥasan, Gâhshumârî dar Îrân-i qadîm, Tehran (Čapkhâna-yi Majlis) 1316/1937-1938, (reprinted with the author's notes appointed to the first edition in the 10th vol. of the Opera omnia, ed.by Î. Afshâr, Tehran, 1357/1978-79). Complete Italian ed.: H. Taqizadeh, Il computo del tempo nell'Iran antico, ed. and transl. by S. Cristoforetti, Roma (ISIAO), 2010. ISBN 978-88-6323-290-5

External links

  • How the leap years are calculated
  • Meaning of the names of the months in the Persian Calendar
  • Persian(shamsi)/Gregorian/Islamic(hijri) Windows Gadget – with persian occasions
Online calendars and converters
  • PersDay.com: Online Persian Calendar and Memo Book Web Application specially designed for Iranians, shows Persian(Hijri-Shamsi), Gregorian, and Hijri-Ghamari calendars for each day; Users can write different types of notes for each day, week, month, season, or year.
  • An online Persian(shamsi)/Gregorian/Islamic(hijri) date converter on http://www.iranchamber.com
  • Online Persian Calendar from aaahoo portal
  • GFDL Afghan Calendar with Gregorian, Hejrah-e shamsi and Hejrah-e qamari dates
  • An online simple Shamsi/Gregorian date converter
Programming
  • GPL Iranian Calendar in JavaScript
  • System.Globalization.PersianCalendar class documentation in MSDN Library (The implementation of Persian Calendar in Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0)
  • Persian Zodiac a free, open source AIR application.
  • JalaliCalendar (The implementation of Persian Calendar in java)

Template:National symbols of Iran

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.