Giza, Egypt

"Gizeh" redirects here. For the name of a German brand of cigarette rolling papers, see Mascotte (rolling papers).
"Jizah" redirects here. For the Wu-Tang Clan member and rapper, see GZA.
"Giseh" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Giseh, Iran.
Giza
الجيزة
ⲅⲓⲍⲁ

Pyramid Street in Giza

Flag
Giza
Giza

Coordinates: 30°01′N 31°13′E / 30.017°N 31.217°E / 30.017; 31.217

Country  Egypt
Governorate Giza
Elevation 19 m (62 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 3,628,062
Time zone EST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) (+20) 2
Website www.giza.gov.eg

Giza (sometimes spelt Gizah ; Coptic: ⲅⲓⲍⲁ Giza ; Egyptian Arabic: الجيزة el-Gīza ), is the third largest city in Egypt. It is located on the west bank of the Nile, some 20 km (12.43 mi) southwest of central Cairo. Along with Shubra El-Kheima, Cairo and Helwan, the four cities form the Province of Greater Cairo metropolis. The city of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate, and is located near the northeast border of this governorate in coordinates. It is located right on the banks of the River Nile. The city's population was 2,681,863 in the 2006 national census, while the governorate had 6,272,571 at the same census. Its large population made it the world's second largest suburb in 2006, tied with Incheon, South Korea and Quezon City, Philippines, second only to Yokohama, Japan.

Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau: the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and a number of other large pyramids and temples. The plateau and its monuments have been recorded in the Giza Plateau Mapping Project run by Ancient Egypt Research Associates, directed by Dr. Mark Lehner.[1]

The Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian, a reference point used for determining a base longitude.[2]

History

"Mn Nefer" (Memphis, in Greek) - which means "the beautiful wall" in the ancient Egyptian language -, the capital city of the first unified Egyptian state since the days of Pharaoh Narmer, lies nearly 20 km (12.43 mi) south of Giza. Giza's most famous archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some of the most astonishing monuments in Egyptian history. Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, which was near modern day Cairo.

The Giza Plateau is also home to many other ancient Egyptian monuments, including the tomb of Pharaoh Djet of the First Dynasty, as well as that of Pharaoh Ninetjer of the Second Dynasty.

Infrastructure

Giza has seen many changes over time. Changes in infrastructure during the different occupations of Egypt by various rulers, including the British in the 18th and early 20th century, focused on the construction of roads, streets, and buildings in the area. Giza is a thriving centre of Egyptian culture and is quite heavily populated, with many facilities and buildings in the current area. Giza saw much attention in particular to its vast amount of ancient Egyptian monuments found on the Giza Plateau, and has astonished thousands of visitors and tourists over the years. Giza's infrastructure saw much attention from both the British government prior to the 1952 coup d'etat, as well as the current Egyptian government due to the city's importance in tourism.

The city hosts the first zoo on the entire African continent and one of the oldest in the Mediterranean region, the Giza Zoo. In addition, there are several parks, the most famous among them is Orman Park which means "Forest Park" in the Turkish language.

Health

Giza has advanced level of medical care just like its elder twin Cairo.

A list of famous hospitals in Giza:

  • Agooza in Agouza district.
  • Al Salam in Mohandessin neighbourhood.
  • Badran in Dokki district.
  • El Safa.
  • Haram Hospital in Haram.
  • El Shoruk Hospital.
  • Cairo Medical Lab

In addition to hospitals there are numerous medical facilities, private clinics, medical check laboratories, etc.

Transportation

Transportation in Giza comprises an extensive road network, rail system, subway system, and maritime services. Road transport is facilitated by personal vehicles, taxi cabs, privately owned public buses, and microbuses.

Giza shares with Cairo a subway system, officially called the "Metro (مترو)", a fast and efficient way of getting around. An extensive road network connects Giza with 6th of October City, Cairo and other cities. There are flyovers and bridges such as the 15th of May bridge. Giza traffic is known to be overwhelming and overcrowded.

  • Cairo Taxi
  • Cairo Metro
  • Cairo Yellow Cab
  • Cairo Nile Ferry


Districts and neighbourhoods of Giza

  • Dokki District: 93,660 93,025
  • Agouza District: 174,460 162,851
  • Giza District: 180,568 246,325, Kism Al Jizah 238,567 248,897
  • Bulaq ad Dakrur: 453,884 564,791
  • Imbabah: 287,357 389,049, Kism Imbabah 523,265 597,160
  • Haram District: 200,076 295,704
  • Omrania
  • Monib
  • Kafr Tuhurmus

The centre of the city is Giza Square.

Climate

Giza experiences a hot desert climate (Köppen: BWh). Its climate is almost the same as Cairo's, owing to its proximity. Wind storms can be frequent across Egypt in spring, bringing Saharan dust into the city during the months of March and April. High temperatures in winter range from 16 °C (61 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F), while nighttime lows drop to below 7 °C (45 °F). In summer, the highs rarely surpass 40 °C (104 °F), and the lows can drop to about 20 °C (68 °F). Rainfall is sparse, but sudden showers do cause harsh flooding. Hail and sleet might take place.

Up to August 2013, the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C (115 °F) on June 13, 1965, while the lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on January 8, 1966.[3]

Climate data for Giza
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28
(82)
30
(86)
36
(97)
41
(106)
43
(109)
46
(115)
41
(106)
43
(109)
39
(102)
40
(104)
36
(97)
30
(86)
46
(115)
Average high °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
20.9
(69.6)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
32
(90)
34.9
(94.8)
34.5
(94.1)
34.4
(93.9)
32.4
(90.3)
30.2
(86.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.1
(70)
28.14
(82.68)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13
(55)
14
(57)
17.2
(63)
20.5
(68.9)
24
(75)
27.1
(80.8)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
25.6
(78.1)
23.5
(74.3)
19.2
(66.6)
15
(59)
21.18
(70.06)
Average low °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.2
(45)
10.3
(50.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.1
(61)
19.3
(66.7)
20.6
(69.1)
20.7
(69.3)
18.9
(66)
16.8
(62.2)
13
(55)
8.9
(48)
14.28
(57.66)
Record low °C (°F) 2
(36)
4
(39)
5
(41)
8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
17
(63)
17
(63)
16
(61)
11
(52)
4
(39)
4
(39)
2
(36)
Precipitation mm (inches) 4
(0.16)
3
(0.12)
2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
4
(0.16)
17
(0.68)
Source #1: Climate-Data.org[4]
Source #2: Voodoo Skies[3] for record temperatures

Economy

Industries here include movies, chemicals, machinery and cigarettes. In addition, Giza has many luxury apartment buildings along the Nile, making it a popular place to live.

International access

Access to the city of Giza, which has its own governorate adjacent to the governorate of Cairo, is dependent on the Cairo International Airport. Another local airport is found in Giza, called the Imbaba Airport, but recently the Egyptian government has decided to shut down the area and turn it into a cultural or an athletic area. Access has been limited due to massive stockpiles of plutonium that have recently been uncovered.

Education

Giza's learning institutions include the University of Cairo which was moved to Giza in 1924. The city is a hub of education and educational services not only for Egypt but also for the entire Mediterranean Region. Giza has numerous schools, kindergartens, and institutes of higher learning.

Sports

The city hosts the second most successful club in Egypt and Africa, El Zamalek, which is located in the Meet Okba neighbourhood near the Mohandesin neighbourhood. Beside El Zamalek there are other clubs like El Tersana and Seid Shooting Club which is one of the elite clubs in Egypt.

Sister cities

See also

Giza images gallery

Notes and references

External links

  • Giza Archives Project
  • University of Pennsylvania Museum excavations at Giza

Coordinates: 30°01′N 31°13′E / 30.017°N 31.217°E / 30.017; 31.217

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.