Ethnic groups in Qatar

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Qatar, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Natives of the Arabian Peninsula, many Qataris are descended from a number of migratory tribes that came to Qatar in the 18th century to escape the harsh conditions of the neighboring areas of Nejd and Al-Hasa. Some are descended from Omani tribes. Qatar has over 1.5 million people, the majority of whom (about 90%) live in Doha, the capital. Foreign workers with temporary residence status make up about four-fifths of the population. Most of them are South Asians, Egyptians, Palestinians, Jordanians, Iranians and Somalis. About 5,000 U.S. citizens resided there as of 2001.

For centuries, the main sources of wealth were pearling, fishing, and trade. At one time, Qataris owned nearly one-third of the Persian Gulf fishing fleet. With the Great Depression and the introduction of Japan's cultured-pearl industry, pearling in Qatar declined drastically.

The Qataris are mainly Sunni Muslims. Islam is the official religion, and Islamic jurisprudence is the basis of Qatar's legal system. Arabic is the official language and English is the lingua franca of business. Urdu is also widely spoken, especially by the South Asian foreign workers.[1] Education is compulsory and free for all residents 6–16 years old. Qatar has an increasingly high literacy rate.

Population

Vital statistics

UN estimates [2]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 1 000 0 000 1 000 47.5 13.8 33.7 6.97 126
1955-1960 2 000 0 000 1 000 44.3 11.3 33.0 6.97 110
1960-1965 2 000 1 000 2 000 41.0 8.8 32.1 6.97 90
1965-1970 4 000 1 000 3 000 38.6 6.8 31.8 6.97 71
1970-1975 5 000 1 000 4 000 34.8 5.2 29.6 6.77 53
1975-1980 7 000 1 000 6 000 35.7 4.0 31.7 6.11 38
1980-1985 10 000 1 000 9 000 33.2 3.1 30.1 5.45 28
1985-1990 11 000 1 000 10 000 25.4 2.5 22.9 4.50 23
1990-1995 11 000 1 000 10 000 22.8 2.2 20.6 4.01 18
1995-2000 10 000 1 000 9 000 19.2 2.1 17.1 3.30 14
2000-2005 13 000 1 000 12 000 18.8 1.9 16.9 3.01 11
2005-2010 18 000 2 000 16 000 14.1 1.6 12.5 2.40 9
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Registered births and deaths[3] [4]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1970 108 3 616 464 3 152 33.4 4.3 29.1
1971 118 3 921 491 3 430 33.2 4.2 29.0
1972 129 4 038 563 3 475 31.2 4.4 26.8
1973 141 4 367 660 3 707 31.0 4.7 26.3
1974 152 4 562 688 3 874 30.0 4.5 25.5
1975 163 4 559 600 3 959 28.0 3.7 24.3
1976 172 4 893 609 4 284 28.4 3.5 24.9
1977 181 5 313 686 4 627 29.4 3.8 25.6
1978 190 5 977 645 5 332 31.4 3.4 28.0
1979 203 6 057 709 5 348 29.8 3.5 26.3
1980 222 6 750 662 6 088 30.5 3.0 27.5
1981 246 7 192 725 6 467 29.3 3.0 26.3
1982 275 8 032 789 7 243 29.2 2.9 26.3
1983 307 8 261 803 7 458 26.9 2.6 24.3
1984 338 8 613 642 7 971 25.5 1.9 23.6
1985 368 9 225 794 8 431 25.1 2.2 22.9
1986 395 9 942 784 9 158 25.2 2.0 23.2
1987 420 9 919 788 9 131 23.6 1.9 21.7
1988 442 10 842 861 9 981 24.5 1.9 22.6
1989 460 10 908 847 10 061 23.7 1.8 21.9
1990 474 11 022 871 10 151 23.3 1.8 21.5
1991 483 9 756 883 8 873 20.2 1.8 18.4
1992 488 10 459 944 9 515 21.4 1.9 19.5
1993 491 10 822 913 9 909 22.0 1.9 20.1
1994 495 10 561 964 9 597 21.3 1.9 19.4
1995 501 10 371 1 000 9 371 20.7 2.0 18.7
1996 512 10 317 1 015 9 302 20.1 2.0 18.1
1997 529 10 447 1 060 9 387 19.8 2.0 17.8
1998 549 10 781 1 157 9 624 19.6 2.1 17.5
1999 570 10 846 1 148 9 698 19.0 2.0 17.0
2000 591 11 438 1 173 10 265 19.4 2.0 17.4
2001 608 12 355 1 210 11 145 20.3 2.0 18.3
2002 624 12 388 1 220 11 168 19.8 2.0 17.8
2003 654 13 026 1 311 11 715 19.9 2.0 17.9
2004 715 13 589 1 341 12 248 19.0 1.9 17.1
2005 821 13 514 1 545 11 969 16.5 1.9 14.6
2006 978 14 204 1 750 12 454 14.5 1.8 12.7
2007 1 178 15 695 1 776 13 919 13.3 1.5 11.8
2008 1 448 17 480 1 942 15 538 12.1 1.3 10.8
2009 1 639 18 351 2 008 16 343 11.2 1.2 10.0
2010 1 715 19 504 1 970 17 534 11.4 1.1 10.3
2011 1 733 20 623 1 949 18 674 11.9 1.1 10.8

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

1,951,591 (July 2011 est.)

Age structure

0–14 years: 21.8% (male 92,896/female 87,201) 15–64 years: 76.8% (male 451,127/female 182,330) 65 years and over: 1.4% (male 6,545/female 4,690) (2008 est.)

Population growth rate

1.093% (2008 est.)
9.56% – World Bank (2009 est.)
0.96% – CIA World FactBook (2009 est.)
2.11% – 2005–2010 List by the United Nations

Sex ratio


at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 2.47 male(s)/female
65 years and over: Qatari men to women is 1.3 male(s) / female or including foreigners 1.4 male(s)/female
total population: 2.00 male(s)/female (2008 est.) (because of high immigration of male workers to Qatar)

Life expectancy at birth


total population: 75.19 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 76.98 years (2008 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.45 children born/woman (2009 est.) (Qataris: 3.9, Foreign nationals: 2)

Nationality


noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups

Mostly Arab. 85 000 Pakistanis, 30 000 Iranians, 2600 Afghans, 1000 Turks.

Religions

Islam 71–77.5%, Christian 8.5–10.3%, Hindu 7.2–12.7%, Buddhist 5%, other 1% [5][6][7][8]

Languages

Arabic (official), English (commonly used as a second language), Urdu, Hindi, Bengali and Malayalam.

Literacy

  • definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  • total population: 96.3%
  • male: 96.5%
  • female: 95.4% (2010 est.)

Genetics

Y-chromosome DNA

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Qatari Y-chromosome in large belongs to haplogroup J which comprises two thirds of the total chromosomes[9]

  • J1 ~ 58.3%
  • J2 ~ 8.3%
  • E* ~ 7.0% --- E(xE1b1b)
  • R1a ~ 6.9%
  • E1b1b ~ 5.6%
  • Other Haplogroups ~ 13.9%

Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage The Qatari mitochondrial DNA shows much more diversity than the Y-DNA lineages, with more than 35% of the lineages showing African ancestry (East African & Subsaharan) & the rest of the lineages being Eurasian.[10]

  • R0 ~ 22% (14% R0*, 8% H)
  • JT ~ 22% (18% J & 4% T)
  • UK ~ 20% (11% K & 9% U)
  • L3 ~ 10% (East African & Subsaharan lineages)
  • Other lineages ~ 26%
See also : Qatar

References

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