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Edward Vernon

Edward Vernon
Admiral Edward "Old Grog" Vernon. Portrait by Thomas Gainsborough
Nickname(s) "Old Grog"
Born (1684-11-12)November 12, 1684
Westminster, London, England
Died October 30, 1757(1757-10-30) (aged 72)
Nacton, Suffolk
Allegiance  Kingdom of England
 Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch  Royal Navy
Years of service 1700–1746
Rank Admiral
Commands held
Other work

Admiral Edward Vernon ("Old Grog") (12 November 1684 – 30 October 1757) was an English naval officer. Vernon was born in Westminster and went to Westminster School. He joined the Royal Navy in 1700 and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1702. After five years as Lieutenant, he was appointed Captain in 1706. His first command was the HMS Rye, part of the fleet of Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell.

The origin of the name "grog" for rum diluted with water and lemon or lime juice is attributed to Vernon. He innovated this way to serve the daily rum ration to Royal Navy sailors in 1740, keeping the water fresher. He was known for wearing coats made of

Military offices
Preceded by
(Last held by Sir Hovenden Walker)
Commander-in-Chief, Jamaica Station
Succeeded by
(Next held by Francis Hosier)
Preceded by
Sir Chaloner Ogle
Commander-in-Chief, Jamaica Station
Succeeded by
Sir Chaloner Ogle
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Viscount Rialton
Samuel Trefusis
Member of Parliament for Penryn
With: Sidney Meadows 1722–1727
Sir Cecil Bishopp 1727–1734
Succeeded by
Sir Richard Mill
John Clavering
Preceded by
William Wollaston
Samuel Kent
Member of Parliament for Ipswich
With: Samuel Kent
Succeeded by
Thomas Staunton
Samuel Kent
  • Vernon biography at the Royal Naval Museum
  • Original Letters to an Honest Sailor

External links

  • Cundall, Frank (1915). Historic Jamaica. West India Committee. 
  • Harding, Richard (2008). "Vernon, Edward (1684–1757)".  


  1. ^ a b Cundall, p. xx
  2. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, "Historical Chronicle: Tuesday, 31 July" Vol. 9, July 1739, pp. 383 and 384; accessed 13 May 2010.
  3. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, "Historical Chronicle" Saturday 23 October Vol. 9, October 1739, page 551; accessed 13 May 2010.
  4. ^ "History of Hilton Hall". Retrieved 16 October 2015. 
  5. ^ Paper presented in 2000 to LACLIO Conference at Stanford University
  6. ^ Harding, Richard. Amphibious Warfare in the Eighteenth Century: The British Expedition to the West Indies, 1740-1742. Royal Historical Society: Studies in History, vol. 62. The Boydell Press. London: 1991.
  7. ^ Crewe, Duncan. Yellow Jack and the Worm: British Naval Administration in the West Indies, 1739-1748. Liverpool University Press: 1993
  8. ^ Admiral Vernon's memorial at Westminster Abbey
  9. ^ Ranft, Brian, editor. The Vernon Papers. Naval Records Society, vol. 99. London: 1958
  10. ^ Hartman, Cyril H. The Angry Admiral: The Later Career of Edward Vernon, Admiral of the White. William Heinemann Ltd. London: 1953.
  11. ^ Vernon, Edward (1746). Original Letters to an Honest Sailor. London. p. 94. 
  12. ^ Precursors of Nelson: British Admirals of the Eighteenth Century; edited by Peter Le Fevre & Richard Harding; Stackpole Books (London: 2000); Chapter 6 "Edward Vernon" pp. 151-176
  13. ^ Palmer, Michael A. Command of the Sea: Naval Command and Control since the Sixteenth Century. Harvard University Press. London:2005, pp.101-104
  14. ^ Pack, James. Nelson's Blood: The Story of Naval Rum. Naval Institute Press. Annapolis:1982, chapter 1 "Old Grogram" pp.1-18.
  15. ^ "Grogram". July 15, 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 


Lawrence Washington had served under Vernon in the War of Jenkins' Ear, and named his estate for his former commander.

His enduring claim to fame was his 1740 order that his sailors' rum should be diluted with water. In 1740, citrus juice (usually lemon or lime juice) was added to the recipe of the traditional daily ration of watered-down rum known to cut down on the water's foulness. Although they did not know the reason at the time, Admiral Edward Vernon's sailors were healthier than the rest of the navy, due to the daily doses of vitamin C the sailors received. However, it was not until 1747 that James Lind formally proved that scurvy could be treated and prevented by supplementing the diet with citrus fruit such as limes or lemons. The rest of the Royal Navy rapidly followed Vernon's lead, supposedly calling the new drink "grog" after Vernon's nickname "Old Grog", attributed to his habitual wearing of a grogram coat.[14][15]

Throughout his career, Vernon had tried to improve naval procedures and encouraged his captains to improve manoeuvres and gun drill. He introduced new instructions to aid the flexibility of handling fleets in battle and formed the basis of continuing improvement to Admiralty fighting instructions by subsequent naval commanders.[12] Vernon continued to serve in Parliament and remained active in the interest of naval affairs until his death at Nacton on 30 October 1757.[13]

Naval innovation and health

[11] While he had been away, Vernon had been elected

Further political career

to attack Cuba. Vernon captured Guantánamo Bay, briefly renaming it Cumberland Bay. He arrived with a force of eight warships and 4,000 soldiers with plans to march on Santiago de Cuba, but was resisted by local guerilla forces and finally abandoned the attempt in December after sickness broke out again. Vernon could no longer hold back his anger at what he perceived as Wentworth’s ineptitude and a bitter quarrel ensued ending in the recall of both parties to Britain at the end of 1742.

In April 1741, with a much larger fleet and land forces under Major General Thomas Wentworth, 26,600 men and 186 ships,[5] Vernon turned his attention to Cartagena de Indias in Nueva Granada (now Colombia). Following initial success, Vernon wrote to England to inform that his forces had penetrated Cartagena's outer defences, giving rise to much celebration. The souvenir industry produced masses of commemorative material, including medals, prints and china. However, Vernon and Wentworth did not get on and the former was frustrated at the land forces' cautious and slow progress, considering the rainy season was already upon them. Given the time factor, it was decided to assault the last remaining substantial fortification before the city without the necessary artillery preparation.[6] An epidemic of yellow fever, typhus, scurvy and dysentery which ravaged the troops ashore, compounded the problems and the force returned to Port Royal. [7] A reflection of the bitter quarrel between Vernon and Wentworth is the inscription on Vernon's marble memorial in Westminster Abbey: "...and at Carthagena (Vernon) conquered as far as naval forces could carry victory". [8]

British medal commemorating the victory of Carthagena de Indias, that never was. It shows Vernon looking down upon the Spanish admiral Blas de Lezo ("Don Blass"). The medal says "The pride of Spain humbled by ad. Vernon". Museo Naval de Madrid, Spain.
Attack of the British army on Cartagena de Indias commanded by the Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon.

Cartagena de Indias

For resistance I could fear none
But with twenty ships had done
What thou brave and happy Vernon
Hast atchiev'd with six alone.

He then charges him to let Hosier's wrongs prevail when he returns to England, upon which he and his fellow ghosts can finally rest, their reputations restored. The first half of verse 7 is thus:

Unrepining at thy glory
Thy successful arms we hail.

Vernon's action was seen by the "Patriots", or pro-war party opposed to Walpole, as just vengeance for Admiral Hosier's disastrous Blockade of Porto Bello during 1726-28 where with a greater force of 20 ships, and Porto Bello inadequately defended, government orders forbade him from firing a shot, leaving him and some 4,000 sailors to linger ineffectually off the shore and to die of tropical diseases. The ballad Admiral Hosier's Ghost was written by Richard Glover following Vernon's triumph, as an attempt to remind Walpole of his previous failed policy of inaction, and to check any basking in Vernon's glory on his part. In the ballad, the Ghost of Hosier appears to Vernon as he rests at anchor following his successful engagement, and congratulates him:

Addressed by Hosier's Ghost

The Ghost of Hosier appears to Vernon as he rests at anchor after his victory. Coloured etching by C. Mosley, July 1740. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich (PW 3959)

On 21 November 1739 Vernon captured the Spanish colonial possession of Porto Bello (now in Panama) using just six ships (against the 90 men Spanish garrison). Vernon was subsequently granted the Freedom of the City of London and commemorative medals were produced. The Portobello areas in London, Dublin and Edinburgh (see Portobello Road and Portobello, Dublin) are named after this victory, and "Rule Britannia" was composed by Thomas Arne during the celebrations in 1740. A tower commemorating his victory was erected by members of the Vernon family living at Hilton Hall outside Wolverhampton.[4]

The bombardment of Porto Bello
by Samuel Scott

Porto Bello

Despite the unmistakable signs of Great Britain preparing for a naval war in the summer of 1739, the formal declaration of war against Spain was not announced in London until Saturday 23 October 1739.[3]

During the Letters of Marque; and (a week after the fact) it reported Vernon and his squadron had sailed for the West Indies on 20 July.[2]

This alleged Spanish atrocity led to the War of Jenkins' Ear in 1739 in which Vice Admiral Vernon led a fleet along with Major General Thomas Wentworth. Vernon captured Porto Bello a Spanish colonial possession, as a result of which, he was granted the Freedom of the City of London. However, Vernon's next campaign against the Spanish, a large-scale assault on Cartagena de Indias in 1741 ended in disaster. After initial success, in Cartagena the British fleet of 186 ships and around 12,000 infantry was defeated by a garrison of 3,500 men and the sailors disembarked from the 6 ships of the line commanded by the one-eyed, one-legged Spanish admiral Blas de Lezo. As disease spread among the British troops, delaying tactics by the Spaniards and a failed assault on the last fortification defending the city led a council of war to decide to abandon the siege and withdraw to Jamaica. The assault was further marred by bitter quarrels with Wentworth. After a further year and a half ineffectually campaigning in the Caribbean, Vernon was recalled back to England to find he had been elected MP for Ipswich.

War of Jenkins' Ear

In March 1715, he was appointed to HMS Assistance, in which he served in the Baltic until 1717 when the ship was paid off. After this, he was put on half pay for the next eighteen months. In March 1719, he was appointed to HMS Mary and returned to the Baltic. Vernon was the commodore on the Jamaica Station in 1720.[1] In 1721, he again went on half pay for five years. During this period, he became the member of Parliament for Penryn and took a leading part in naval debates. In 1726, he was re-appointed to active service in HMS Grafton. This ship served in the Baltic until the winter of 1727 when it was transferred to the fleet at Gibraltar, after Spain had declared war on Britain. In May 1728, peace was made with Spain and Vernon returned to Britain and resumed his Parliamentary duties. He took up the case of Robert Jenkins, a merchant seaman who claimed to have had his ear cut off after his vessel was boarded by Spanish guardacostas in 1731.

Peace, promotion and parliament

On 22 January 1706 he was promoted Captain and appointed to HMS Dolphin. However, he was moved ten days later into HMS Rye and remained in the Mediterranean until 1707. With the rest of Shovell’s fleet, he returned to England, but was fortunate to escape the disaster that befell Shovell’s flagship, HMS Association at the Isles of Scilly. In November, he joined HMS Jersey and in April 1708, took command of the West Indies station. In 1710, he successfully broke up a Spanish squadron off Cartagena. At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1712, he returned to Britain.

In December, with Shovell, he transferred to HMS Britannia and was present at the capture of Barcelona in 1705.

The Battle of Malaga (1704), by Isaac Sailmaker.

In March 1701, he was transferred to HMS Ipswich and three months later, joined HMS Mary. On 16 September 1702, Vernon was promoted Lieutenant and appointed to HMS Lennox serving in the Channel Squadron. The ship was later transferred to the Mediterranean and finally paid off in March 1704. He was then appointed to HMS Barfleur, which at the time was the flagship of Admiral Cloudesley Shovell in the Mediterranean. The ship was present at the capture of Gibraltar and the Battle of Málaga.

War of the Spanish Succession

  • War of the Spanish Succession 1
  • Peace, promotion and parliament 2
  • War of Jenkins' Ear 3
    • Porto Bello 3.1
    • Addressed by Hosier's Ghost 3.2
    • Cartagena de Indias 3.3
  • Further political career 4
  • Naval innovation and health 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


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