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Economy of Serbia and Montenegro

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Title: Economy of Serbia and Montenegro  
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Language: English
Subject: Economic history, Social savings, Economic history of Somalia, Economic history of Zimbabwe, Economic history of Pakistan
Collection: Economies by Former Country, Serbia and Montenegro
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Economy of Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro was a confederated union which existed between 2003 and 2006. The two republics initially formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992. The economy of Serbia and Montenegro entered a prolonged decline in 1989. Exacerbated by the economic embargo imposed during the Bosnian war, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) economy's downward spiral showed no real sign of recovery until 1995. GDP was nowhere near its 1991 level, but the NATO bombing in 1999 of the basic infrastructure of the country and many factories, as well as a renewed embargo caused a further huge drop in GDP in relation to the 1991 level. The first sign of an economic recovery occurred in 2001 after the removal of Milošević on 5 October 2000. A vigorous team of economic reformers has worked to tame inflation (non-energy inflation is less than 9% in 2002, down from over 120% two years earlier) and rationalize the SCG economy. GDP, although only half of its 1997 level, is projected to increase steadily in the near future. As of January 2005 GDP has recovered to 55-60% of its 1990 level, due to GDP growth of 8.5% in 2004.


  • Currency Problems 1
  • Stabilization Efforts 2
  • Statistics 3
    • Gross Domestic Product 3.1
    • Economic Situation 3.2
    • Industrial Situation 3.3
    • Electricity 3.4
    • Oil 3.5
    • Natural Gas 3.6
    • Agricultural Produce 3.7
    • Exports 3.8
    • Imports 3.9
    • Debt 3.10
    • Currency 3.11
  • See also 4
  • External links 5

Currency Problems

The FRY's monetary unit, the dinar, remained volatile throughout Milošević's rule. Alarmed FRY officials took several steps to tighten monetary policy in 1998, including ruling out a devaluation in the near term, increasing reserve requirements, and issuing bonds. During this period, Montenegro rejected the dinar and adopted the Deutsche Mark (now replaced by the euro) as its official currency. As 1999 began, the damage control operation had succeeded in returning the exchange rate to reasonable levels. However, it was not until 2002, after intense macroeconomic reform measures, that the dinar became convertible—a first since the Bretton Woods Agreements laid out the post-World War II international exchange rate regime.

Stabilization Efforts

Privatization efforts have not succeeded as well as macroeconomic reform. The process of privatization is not popular among workers of large socially owned companies, and many citizens appear to believe the tendering process is overly centralized and controlled from Belgrade. Furthermore, international investment is still lagging in Serbia and Montenegro (SaM), as a result of both domestic and international investment climates. Managers tend to blame the dearth of interest on the current negative business climate in SaM.


Gross Domestic Product

Purchasing power parity - $25.98 billion (2004 est.)<, $27.5 Billion predicted for 2005 br> Real growth rate: 8.5% (2004 est.), 6.5% (2005 est)
Real GDP Per capita - nominal: $2900 (2004 est.), $3200 (2005 est.)
Composition by sector:

Agriculture: 15.2%
Industry: 28.2%
Services: 56.6% (2004 est.)

Economic Situation

Population below poverty line: 10%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12-13% (2004 est.)
Labor force: 3,596,282 (2005 est.)

Revenues: $9.773 billion
expenditures: $10.460 billion (2004 est.)

Industrial Situation


machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (2004 est.)


Production: 31,710 GWh (2001)
Production by source (2001):

Fossil fuel: 62.9%
Hydro: 37.1%
Nuclear: 0%
Other: 0%

Consumption: 32,370 GWh (2001)
Exports: 446 GWh (2001)
Imports: 3,330 GWh (2001)


Production: 15,000-barrel (2,400 m3) 2001
Consumption: 64,000-barrel (10,200 m3) 2001
Exports: NA (2001)
Imports: NA (2001)
Proved reserves: 38.75-million-barrels (6,161,000 m3) January 2002

Natural Gas

Proved reserves: 24.07 km³ (January 2002 est.)

Agricultural Produce

Cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats.


Total: $5.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)(goods and services)
Commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina 19%, Italy 12%, Germany 12%, Republic of Macedonia 8%, Russia 4% (2004)


Total: $11.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)(goods and services)
Commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Partners: Russia 13%, Germany 13%, Italy 9%, China 5%, USA 4% (2004)


External: $12.6 billion (2004 est.)
-As a percentage of GDP: 55-60% (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)


Serbian dinar (CSD). Note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
Code: YUM
Exchange rates: Serbian dinara per US dollar - official rate: 60 (2004); Fiscal year: calendar year

See also

External links

  • Montenegro Economy>> Financial Business and Economy News from Montenegro
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